Sheol, Sheool, Sjeool, Hades, Hel, Graf, Sepulcrum

Posted on October 29, 2012. Filed under: Geschiedenis, Leven en Dood, Lijden | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Wanneer mensen over sjeool hebben spreken zij regelmatig over een plaats waar men angst zou voor moeten hebben en waar mensen zouden afzien tot in het oneindige. Maar klopt dat wel met de Bijbelse notities?

Daarvoor kan men best zien waar dat woordje Sjeool van komt en wat het in de originele taal, of in de tijd toen het werd gebruikt betekende.

Als men de teksten goed bekijkt zal het daar gaan over : Het graf (grave, tomb, sepulchre) of opbergruimte voor een lijk of dood lichaam, de grafstede alsook de plaats waar iemand begraven ligt (burial place, resting place).

Het sepulcrum wordt eerst in de Bijbel als de begraafplaats of graf vermeld dat door Abraham voor Sarah van Ephron de Hettiet werd gekocht  (Genesis 23:20). Dit was het “hol van het veld van Machpelah”, waar ook Abraham en Rebekah en Jacob en Leah werden begraven (79:29-32). Die plaats werd als de ongeziene wereld beschouwd: Hades en Sheool. Deze plaatsen waren, aangezien door de eerste zondeval in de wereld ook de dood tot iedereen gekomen was, voor eenieder onderdeel van de schepping de tegemoet te ziene laatste rustplaats. In de dood zou voor iedereen en alles verval optreden, zonder verschil tussen plant, dier of mens. (Prediker 3:19.20) Iedereen moest naar die plaats, het graf, gaan om opnieuw stof  te worden. (Gensis 3:19; Prediker 12:7) In Handelingen van de Apostelen 7:16 wordt gezegd dat Jacob “in het sepulcrum werd gelegd dat Abraham van de zonen van Emmor de vader van Sychem voor een som geld had gekocht”. Mozes, Elisha, Koning David werden in een sepulcrum geplaatst. Koningen (1 Koningen 2:10) en profeten (1 Samuel 25:1) werden algemeen binnen steden begraven. Graven waren algemeen grotten of holen, natuurlijke of uit rotsen gehouwde holten (Jesaja 22:16; Mattheus 27:60). Er waren familiebegraafplaatsen (Genesis 47:29; 50:5; 2 Samuel 19:37). Openbare begraafplaatsten zoals Gehenna buiten Jeruzalem, werden aan de armen toegewezen (Jeremia 26:23; 2 Koningen 23:6). Graven werden gewoonlijk met stenen afgesloten, welke werden witgewassen, om vreemden te waarschuwen tegen contact met hen (Mattheus23:27), welk ceremoniële vervuiling veroorzaakte (Numerieken 19:16) . Er waren geen graven in Jeruzalem behalve die van de koningen en volgens traditie die van de profetes Huldah. Joseph van Arimathea verzorgde zijn eigen pas gemaakt sepulcrum voor gebruik voor Jezus van Nazareth (Matthew 27:57-60) die ook door zijn dood in “de hel” ging.

Het sjeool was de plaats waar lijken in de grond werden gestoken of werden verbrand. Zij zijn te vergelijken met onze huidige begraafplaatsen waar de doden worden begraven of waar de verastte doden hun as wordt uitgestrooid. Vroeger werden ze op die plaats sjeool of ghehenna in brand gestoken zodat zij tot as vergingen en geen gevaar voor de gezondheid zouden zijn.

Hier kunt u een lijst met de Nederlandse vertaling vinden van woorden die worden gebruikt voor het Hebreeuwse woord “sheol” Sheol() en van onzekere etymologie (zie dodenrijk, kritische blik) gevonden, kan worden van het Assyro-Babylonische leen-woord, “Shu’alu, wat betekent  “de plaats, waarheen de doden worden verwezen of bevolen,” of “de plaats waar de doden worden ingekazerneerd.”, synoniem van ” bor “(kuil, put),” Abaddon “en” Shahat “(put of vernietiging), en misschien ook van “tehom” (afgrond), met de Engelse vertaling als er een te vinden is:

Graf: grave, tomb, sepulchre + een graf delven, een sheol make: to dig a grave; hij ligt in sheol/sheool/sjeool/hades: he is lying in his grave; he’s six foot under + opstaan uit sheool; uit het graf opstaan: arise from the grave

Sheool, Graf (begraafplaats): burial place, grave, tomb, sepulchre

dodenrijk, onderwereld: underworld, hades, shades, sheol

Sheool; laatste rustplaats: grave, resting-place

Iemand/iets/ een geheim in sheool nemen: to take some one/ some thing/ a secret  (with one) to the grave<

begraafplaats: cemetry, graveyard, burial ground, memorial park; algemene begraafplaats: public cemetry

grafplaats: (burialplace)

grafakker:

Gods Akker, doden akker: (field of God), God’s acre, last resting-place of the dead

laatste rustplaats: last resting-place (of the dead)

Akker des Heren: (field of the Lord)

dodenakker: (field of the dead)

dodentempel: mortuary temple

Golghotha:

catacombe: catacomb

crypte: crypt

sarcofaag: (doodskist) sarcophagus: sarcophagus; (omhulsel): sarcophagus

sarcophaag (stenen opbergplaats), sarcophagus:  (stone) sarcophagus

doodskist: sarcophagus

bijzetplaats: (place for interment)

bijzetting: interment, burial

ter aarde bestelling:

grafruimte: commit to the earth, inhume, inter

begraven, ter aarde bestellen, sheool laten toebhoren / tot sheool geven: inhume

grafstede, qeber: (Hebrew qeber)

graftombe: tomb, sepulchre

grafkuil: burial pit

aardkuil: (pit in the earth)

pottenbank

familiegraf: family grave/tomb ; (grafkelder): family vault

erfgraf: (hereditary grave)

kindergraf: children’s grave

grafspelonk:

koepelgraf: beehive tomb

keldergraf:

familiekelder: (family vault)

grafgewelf: (vault tomb)

crypte: crypt

grafgang:

eregraf: (tomb of honour, mausoleum)

praalgraf: mausoleum

mausoleum: mausoleum

tempelgraf: mausoleum

tombe: tomb

eretombe: mausoleum

pantheon: pantheon

columbarium: columbarium

The Megalithic tomb in Mane Braz, Brittany

The Megalithic tomb in Mane Braz, Brittany (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

urneplaats:  (place for the urn)

urnemuur: (a wall for the urn)

reuzengraf: (a huge/giant grave/tomb) (mega grave/tomb) (monumental grave/tomb)

reuzenbed: dolmen, cromlech

dolmen: dolmen

hunnebed: megalith, megalithic tomb, megalithic monument, megalithic grave

grafheuvel, gadisj: (burial hill), tumulus; (Hebrew “gadisj”)

grafterp: grave mound, tumulus, barrow

tumulus: tumulus

Tumulus von Nickenich

Tumulus von Nickenich (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

langgraf: long barrow

(doden draagbaar/berrie/burrie/lamoen): barrow

piramide: piramid

konus:

grafmonument:

cenotaaf; cenotaphium: cenotaph

gedenkteken: cenotaphgrafzuil:

grafnaald:

grafsteen: gavestone, tombstone, headstone

tombesteen: tombstone

grafgesteente:

grafzerk: gravestone, tombstone, (gave/tomb) slab, ledger

herrinneringsgraf: (Greek “taphos”: tomb)

lijkgesteente:

grafnis: burial niche

grafplaat: memorial plaque/tablet, (groot = when big) memorial slab

graftablet: memorial tablet

grafbord,

gewijde grond: sared ground

graftuin: (grave garden) (cemetry; graveyard)

begraafplaats: cemtry, graveyard, burial ground/place, memorial park,  (algemene/openbare begraafplatats): public cemetry

campo-santo:

knokelplaats, ossarium:

knekelhuis, beenderhuis, osuarium: ossuary

beenderurn, ossuarium: ossuary

beenderengrot, ossuarium: ossuary

beenderhoop:

ligplaats tussen vier planken:

ligplaats voor eeuwig: [(mooring(place) for ever]

laatste ankerplaats, laatste tolplaats, den dieperik, poort tot het eeuwig e (niets/leven), pierenkuil, put voor de gecrepeerden, put/kuil der ruste, bij de mieren zijn, plaats van ontbinding, lijkenstek, lijkenplaats,, knekelmansplaats, doodskistenplaats, kadaver plaats/ruimte,

aan de schoot der aarde toevertrouwen, onder de grond stoppen, in de put steken,een lijk bijzetten, lijken verbranden/verassen,

schimmenrijk: realm of spirits/ghosts, underworld, hades

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Bijbel aanhalingen:

“‘Vraag om een teken van de HEER, uw God, hetzij uit de diepte van het dodenrijk hetzij uit de hoge hemel.’” (Jesaja 7:11 NBV)

“Je boog je over je minnaars met olie en balsem in overvloed. Je stuurde je boden naar verre oorden, zelfs tot diep in het dodenrijk.” (Jesaja 57:9 NBV)

“Geen boom, al heeft hij zijn wortels in het water, zal ooit nog zo hoog worden, geen kruin zal ooit nog de wolken raken. Geen boom zal zich meer boven de andere verheffen. Ze worden allemaal aan de dood prijsgegeven, ze verdwijnen in de onderwereld, waar ook de mensen zijn die in het graf zijn afgedaald.” (Ezechiël 31:14 NBV)

“Want u toont mij uw grote trouw, u verlost mij uit de diepte van het dodenrijk.” (Psalmen 86:13 NBV)

“Als het vuur van mijn toorn is ontstoken zal het branden tot in het diepste dodenrijk; het zal de aarde verschroeien en alles wat daar groeit, het zal de grondvesten van de bergen verteren.” (Deuteronomium 32:22 NBV)

“Uit de diepte van de put roep ik uw naam, HEER.” (Klaagliederen 3:55 NBV)

“dan zal ik je doen afdalen naar hen die je zijn voorgegaan, naar het volk van weleer. Daar zul je wonen, in het land van de diepten, bij hen die zijn afgedaald in de afgrond, in de eeuwige ruïnes. Je zult niet langer in het land van de levenden wonen, daar zul je geen plek meer hebben.” (Ezechiël 26:20 NBV)

“Daar ligt Elam, met heel het volk rondom het graf van de koning, allemaal zijn ze gesneuveld, gevallen door het zwaard. Als onbesnedenen zijn ze afgedaald naar de onderwereld-eens zaaiden ze angst in het land van de levenden, nu moeten ze hun schande dragen met degenen die in het graf zijn afgedaald.” (Ezechiël 32:24 NBV)

“Maar wie zij naar zich toe lokt weet niet dat hij afdaalt naar de schimmen, hij daalt af tot in het dodenrijk.” (Spreuken 9:18 NBV)

“Daarom blijft het recht ver van ons en is gerechtigheid voor ons onbereikbaar. Wij hopen op licht, maar het is duister, op een sprankje licht, maar we dolen in het donker.” (Jesaja 59:9 NBV)

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“Maar wie zij naar zich toe lokt weet niet dat hij afdaalt naar de schimmen, hij daalt af tot in het dodenrijk.” (Spreuken 9:18 NBV)

“O, geef mij een schuilplaats in het dodenrijk en verberg me daar totdat uw woede is geluwd, stel een tijd vast en kijk dan weer naar mij om.” (Job 14:13 NBV)

“Zo daalden zij met allen die bij hen hoorden levend in het dodenrijk af. De aarde sloot zich boven hen, en zij waren uit de gemeenschap verdwenen.” (Numeri 16:33 NBV)

Stokt zijn adem, hij keert terug tot de aarde, op die dag gaat hij met zijn plannen ten onder.” (Psalmen 146:4 NBV)

“(6:6) Want doden noemen uw naam niet meer! Wie in het dodenrijk kan u nog loven?” (Psalmen 6:5 NBV)

“Wanneer men jullie vraagt om de geesten van doden te raadplegen en naar fluisterende en mompelende waarzeggers te luisteren-elk volk raadpleegt toch zijn goden en vraagt de doden toch om raad voor de levenden? -,” (Jesaja 8:19 NBV)

“Jullie doden zullen herleven, de lijken opstaan. Ontwaak, jullie daar in het stof, en jubel! Uw dauw is een dauw die leven geeft, de aarde brengt haar schimmen weer tot leven.” (Jesaja 26:19 NBV)

“Nee, het dodenrijk zal u niet loven, de dood prijst u niet, zij die in het graf zijn afgedaald verlaten zich niet op uw trouw.” (Jesaja 38:18 NBV)

“10 Er mag bij u geen plaats zijn voor mensen die hun zoon of dochter als offer verbranden, en evenmin voor waarzeggers, wolkenschouwers, wichelaars, tovenaars, 11 bezweerders, en voor hen die geesten raadplegen of doden oproepen. 12 Want de HEER verafschuwt mensen die zulke dingen doen, en om die verfoeilijke praktijken verdrijft hij deze volken voor u.” (Deuteronomium 18:10-12 NBV)

“13 Saul vond de dood omdat hij de HEER ontrouw was geweest door niet uit te voeren wat de HEER hem had opgedragen. Ook had hij de geest van een dode geraadpleegd 14 in plaats van de HEER om raad te vragen. Daarom had de HEER hem gedood en het koningschap laten overgaan op David, de zoon van Isaï.” (1 Kronieken 10:13-14 NBV)

“Wie nog in leven zijn, weten tenminste dat ze moeten sterven, maar de doden weten niets. Er is niets meer dat hun loont, want ze zijn vergeten.” (Prediker 9:5 NBV)

“19 want de mensen en de dieren treft hetzelfde lot. Zoals een dier sterft, zo sterft ook een mens; ze delen in dezelfde adem. Dat is hun beider lot. Een mens is niet beter af dan een dier, want alles is leegte. 20 Alles gaat naar dezelfde plaats, alles is uit stof ontstaan en alles keert terug tot stof.” (Prediker 3:19-20 NBV)

Niet de doden loven de HEER, niet wie zijn afgedaald in de stilte,” (Psalmen 115:17 NBV)

“25 David zegt immers over hem: “Steeds houd ik de Heer voor ogen, hij is aan mijn zijde, ik wankel niet. 26 Daarom verheugt zich mijn hart en jubelt mijn tong van blijdschap. Ja, mijn lichaam zal behouden blijven, 27 want u zult mij niet overleveren aan het dodenrijk en het lichaam van uw trouwe dienaar zal niet tot ontbinding overgaan.” (Handelingen 2:25-27 NBV)

“Wat David betreft, hij is, nadat hij de mensen uit zijn eigen tijd had gediend, overeenkomstig Gods wil gestorven en met zijn voorouders verenigd; hij is tot ontbinding overgegaan,” (Handelingen 13:36 NBV)

“de banden van het dodenrijk omklemden mij, op mijn weg lagen de valstrikken van de dood.” (2 Samuël 22:6 NBV)

“(89:49) Leeft er iemand die de dood niet zal zien, die ontkomt aan de greep van het dodenrijk? \@sela\@” (Psalmen 89:48 NBV)

“18 Nee, het dodenrijk zal u niet loven, de dood prijst u niet, zij die in het graf zijn afgedaald verlaten zich niet op uw trouw. 19 Maar hij die leeft-leeft! zal u loven, zoals ik doe op deze dag. Ouders laten hun kinderen weten hoe trouw u bent.” (Jesaja 38:18-19 NBV)

“7  Hoe zou ik aan uw aandacht ontsnappen, hoe aan uw blikken ontkomen? 8 Klom ik op naar de hemel-u tref ik daar aan, lag ik neer in het dodenrijk-u bent daar.” (Psalmen 139:7-8 NBV)

“De HEER doorgrondt de afgrond van het dodenrijk, hoeveel te meer het hart van de mensen.” (Spreuken 15:11 NBV)

“Al kruipen ze de onderwereld in, ik breng ze naar boven; al klimmen ze de hemel in, ik haal ze naar beneden.” (Amos 9:2 NBV)

“(49:15) als schapen verblijven zij in het dodenrijk, en de dood is hun herder. In de morgen vertrappen de oprechten hun graf, hun lichaam teert weg in het dodenrijk en vindt geen rust.” (Psalmen 49:14 NBV)

“(9:18) Laten de goddelozen weggaan naar het dodenrijk, alle volken die God zijn vergeten.” (Psalmen 9:17 NBV)

“8 Het oog dat op mij is gericht, zal niets zien: u kijkt naar mij, maar ik zal er niet zijn. 9 Zoals wolken verwaaien en verdwijnen, zo daalt de mens voorgoed af in het dodenrijk.” (Job 7:8-9 NBV)

“Door één mens is de zonde in de wereld gekomen en door de zonde de dood, en zo is de dood voor ieder mens gekomen, want ieder mens heeft gezondigd.” (Romeinen 5:12 NBV)

“Als de dood heeft geheerst door de overtreding van één mens, is het des te zekerder dat allen die de genade en de vrijspraak in zo’n overvloed hebben ontvangen, zullen heersen in het eeuwige leven, dankzij die ene mens, Jezus Christus.” (Romeinen 5:17 NBV)

“Zoals door de ongehoorzaamheid van één mens alle mensen zondaars werden, zo zullen door de gehoorzaamheid van één mens alle mensen rechtvaardigen worden.” (Romeinen 5:19 NBV)

“Het loon van de zonde is de dood, maar het geschenk van God is het eeuwige leven in Christus Jezus, onze Heer.” (Romeinen 6:23 NBV)

“Zoals wij door Adam allen sterven, zo zullen wij door Christus allen levend worden gemaakt.” (1 Corinthiërs 15:22 NBV)

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Engelse versie / English version: Sheol, Sheool, Sjeool, Hades, Hell, Grave, Tomb, Sepulchre

Lees ook:
  1. Straf van God
  2. Dood
  3. Sterfelijkheid
  4. De staat van onze doden
  5. Heerlijke einde
  6. Hemel en hel
  7. Hellevuur
  8. Onsterfelijkheid
  9. Onsterfelijkheid – Immortaliteit
  10. Decomposition, decay – vergaan, afsterven, ontbinding
  11. Leven na de dood
  12. Lichaam en ziel één
  13. Ziel
  14. Rapture blootgelegd
  15. Rapture betekenis
  16. Rapture betekenis – Toegang met Christus
  17. Rapture betekenis – Verzamelen met Jezus
  18. Rapture betekenis – Vervoering in de wolken

++

Aanverwant:

  1. Gevallen engelen
  2. Bang voor gevallen engelen
  3. Bestraffing vermijden
  4. Bevrijding
  5. God komt ons ten goede
  6. Gods hoop en onze hoop
  7. Christelijke hoop op eeuwig leven
  8. Hoop op een man
  9. Jezus moest sterven
  10. Hoop voor de toekomst
  11. Hoop eerste christenen
  12. Hoop op leven
  13. Goedheid en liefde openbaar gemaakt
  14. Satan of duivel
  15. Stoffelijke tegenover geestelijke hemel
  16. Ware hoop
  17. Hoofdbronnen van afwijkende gedachten

In het Engels:

  1. SHEOL – JewishEncyclopedia.com
  2. Hebrew word of uncertain etymology (see Sheol, Critical View), synonym of “bor” (pit), “abaddon” and “shaḥat” (pit or destruction), and perhaps also of “tehom”
  3. Sheol
    Sheol, the term in Hebrew means a grave or pit, was the place where the dead gathered, as thought by the early Hebrews, and was believed located beneath
    http://www.themystica.org
  4. The Question of Hell?
    Everyone with the exception of Jesus Christ, who has lived and died is now in Hell. Yes, all dead Christians, Jews, Muslims, and everyone else are there. The problem is that most people do not understand Hell. In both the Hebrew and the Greek, hell is the grave and is not to be confused with the Lake of Fire. No one is burning in hell  at this moment and no one will be conscious of being in the Lake of Fire (at a future date) except the False Prophet, the Beast and the devil. If this were not so, the whole Bible would fall apart. Jesus Christ is the only person who has ever lived and died and is alive anywhere today. Everyone else is dead and in the grave.
  5. Jesus went to Hell and so will We
    If you have read my book or Ecclesiastes you will know that there is no memory, or thinking or imagination or any brain activity at all, in the grave “wither thou goest!”
  6. The World After DeathMany people think that after death, people will go to Heaven or Hell. But humans are not likely to directly go to Heaven or Hell. For that we need to learn a few things about the world after death. Through a Christian magazine “Solagratia”, I found an article that discusses the world after death. Here’s a brief summary of the World After Death which are summarized by an article in the magazine “Solagratia” is.
  7. Dead and after
  8. Sheol or the grave
  9. Soul
  10. Destination of righteous
  11. Hellfire
  12. Immortality, eternality – onsterfelijkheid, eeuwigheid
  13. Dying or not
  14. Decomposition, decay – vergaan, afsterven, ontbinding
  15. Jesus three days in hell
  16. Fragments from the Book of Job #1: chapters 1-12
  17. Fragments from the Book of Job #2: chapters 12-20
  18. Fragments from the Book of Job #3: chapters 21-26
  19. Fragments from the Book of Job #4: chapters 27-31
  20. Fragments from the Book of Job #5: chapters 32-37
  21. Another way looking at a language #3 Abraham
  22. Fear and protection
  23. Fear of God reason to return to Holy Scriptures
  24. When Jesus was crucified, did he descend into hell for a period of time before rising again?
    The belief that Jesus descended into hell when he died is based on a misunderstanding of three Bible passages.  Here is one of them. Acts 2:25-27 (New English Translation): 25 For David says about him, ‘I saw the Lord always in front of me, for he is at my right hand so that I will [...]
  25. Will atheists go to hell?
    Most atheists are not going to be judged by God at all.  No one is judged by God unless they knew and believed his law, and still broke it:  Romans 4:15; 5:13;7:7; 1 John 3:4.  However, no one goes to ‘hell’, as it is popularly thought of.
  26. Who is the woman in the nether-world and why is she there?
    This question is based on Proverbs 5 from the JPS translation: Proverbs 5:3-5 (JPS) For the lips of a strange woman drop honey, and her mouth is smoother than oil; But her end is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a two-edged sword. Her feet go down to death; her steps take hold on the nether-world; [...]
  27. Where is hell?
    In the King James Version, the word hell occurs 54 times, but in almost every case it is a translation of one of three different words, each with its own meaning. So to understand hell, we really need to understand the original Hebrew and Greek words that are translated hell. These are: Sheol, Hades and [...]
  28. Can you be conscious and dead?
    No. According to the Bible, death is a state of unconciousness as a person turns to dust. This is stated repeatedly. Here are some examples. For in death there is no remembrance of you [God]; in Sheol who will give you praise? (Psalm 6:5) The dead do not praise the Lord, nor do any who [...]
  29. Sheol
  30. Sheol, the term in Hebrew means a grave or pit, was the place where the dead gathered, as thought by the early Hebrews, and was believed located beneath
  31. What is the fate of children who die?
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Gehenna

The word is derived from the Hebrew “ge Hinnom” which allegedly means “weeping”.

Tarturus

This word means “dark caves”. When translated by the verb, the word means “throw into hell”.

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  • Want to go to Hell? are you sure? (meanlittleboy2.wordpress.com)
  • The Biblical Concepts of Hell Part I ~ Humanity Healing (evolutionarymystic.wordpress.com)
    The theme of a soul journeying to inferior planes is recurrent in many instances of ancient literature and we can easily pinpoint similar content in many religious and wisdom stories. From Greek mythology to the Judaism traditions, even passing through the Buddhist imagery, we find many texts that report the descending of an enlighten soul to the depths of the earth in order to rescue others or redeem itself.
    +
    The Descent of Jesus to the Underworld
    In the particular case of Christianity, there are only a few sources that reference the passage reporting the passing of Jesus’ soul to “hell” for the accomplishment of the prophesy and the release of the Captives, those who are bound there. The Nicene Creed, from which the Apostles’ Creed is derived, is the Symbol or Profession of Faith in Christianity which narrates the significant parts of the life of the Master Jesus and says in its verses:
  • Where You Gonna Gto, When You Die Old (meanlittleboy2.wordpress.com)
    From our experiences in life it is easy for us to understand the truth that when a person dies, his body begins its decay back into dust. But what about a man’s spirit? Where does it go at death? This study presents a couple of possible answers derived from Scripture. Then it answers the most critical question: “What must I do to be saved from my sins and receive forgiveness and eternal life?”
  • Hell (wed-gie.com)
    In many mythological, folklore and religious traditions, hell is a place of suffering and punishment in an afterlife, often after resurrectionReligions with a lineardivine history often depict hells as endless. Religions with a cyclic history often depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations. Typically these traditions locate hell under the Earth‘s external surface and often include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations includeHeavenPurgatoryParadise, and Limbo.
  • Why is the USA Going to Sheol in a Shopping Cart? (stevesammons.me)
    Besides the errors of government too big and government too small, there is one other growing temptation for the Christian that may have become more common than either of those other ills and is even more deadly: government too important. We have convinced ourselves that gaining the seats of power is the key to spreading the gospel and changing our world.
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Sheol, Sheool, Sjeool, Hades, Hell, Grave, Tomb, Sepulchre

Posted on October 29, 2012. Filed under: History, Life and Death, Suffering | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Sheol (“Sheool”, “Sjeool”), Hades

Under the tags “graf” = “grave, tomb, sepulchre” you will find links to articles about the place to put away, stow away or store dead bodies, corpses or  cadavers. Under those words you shall be able to find more information about those “opbergplaatsen or “opbergruimten” storage areas/rooms or vaults as well on the places were those corpses are brought and been put in a burial pit or  brought to interment, entombment or sepulchre. The tomb, vault, crypt, sepulchre, burial chamber, monumental/memorial grave, monumental/memorial tomb, the burial place or resting place.

[Old English græf;  related to Old Frisian gref,  Old High German grab,  Old Slavonic grobǔ; ] (Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition )
O.E. græf  “grave, ditch,” from P.Gmc. *graban  (cf. O.S. graf,  O.Fris. gref,  O.H.G. grab  “grave, tomb;” O.N. gröf  “cave,” Goth. graba  “ditch”), from PIE base *ghrebh-/*ghrobh-  “to dig, to scratch, to scrape” (cf. O.C.S. grobu  “grave, tomb”); related to grafan  “to dig”). (Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper )
1150–1200;  ME sepulcre  < OF < L sepulcrum,  equiv. to sepul-  (var. stem of sepelīre  to bury) + -crum  n. suffix of place (Dictionary.com Unabridged )
tomb: 1225–75;  ME tumbe  < AF; OF tombe  < LL tumba  < Gk týmbos  burial mound; akin to L tumēre  to swell. (Dictionary.com Unabridged )
from Old French tombe,  from Late Latin tumba  burial mound, from Greek tumbos;  related to Latin tumēre  to swell, Middle Irish tomm  hill (Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition )
tomb

c.1275, from Anglo-Fr. tumbe,  O.Fr. tombe  (12c.), from L.L. tumba  (cf. It. tomba , Fr. tombe , Sp. tumba ), from Gk. tymbos  “burial mound, grave, tomb,” from PIE base *teu-  “to swell” (see thigh). The final -b  began to be silent 14c. (cf. lamb, dumb). A tombstone  (1565) originally was a horizontal stone covering a grave (or the lid of a stone coffin); meaning “gravestone, headstone” is attested from 1711.

(Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper )

sepulchre – a chamber that is used as a grave

chamber – a natural or artificial enclosed space
crypt – a cellar or vault or underground burial chamber (especially beneath a church)
tomb, grave – a place for the burial of a corpse (especially beneath the ground and marked by a tombstone); “he put flowers on his mother’s grave”
mausoleum – a large burial chamber, usually above ground
monument, repository – a burial vault (usually for some famous person)
burial vault, vault – a burial chamber (usually underground)
(Collins Thesaurus of the English Language)

catacomb, crypt, final resting place, last home, mausoleum, mound, permanent address, place of interment, resting place, sepulchre, shrine, six feet under, tomb, vault

boneyard, God’s acre, Golgotha, boot hill, catacomb, cemetery, charnel, charnel house, churchyard, city of the dead, crypt, eternal home, funerary grounds, garden, grave , graveyard, marble town, memorial park, mortuary, necropolis, ossuary, polyandrium, potter’s field, resting place, sepulcher, tomb, vault

Under the tag “graf” which stand for “sjeool” or “sheool” or “Sheol” you shall be able to find articles on any excavation made in the earth in which a dead body can be buried. Any place that becomes the receptacle of what is dead, lost, or past, the last place of interment; a tomb or sepulchre.
It is about a place for the burial of a corpse, which can be beneath the ground but also above the earth in a special build construction, a cavity in a mensa, a vault or mausoleum and usually marked by a tombstone.

The sepulchre is first mentioned in the Bible as the burialplace or grave purchased by Abraham for Sarah from Ephron the Hittite (Genesis 23:20). This was the “cave of the field of Machpelah,” where also Abraham and Rebekah and Jacob and Leah were burried (79:29-32). That place was considered as the unseen world: Hades and Sheool, were since the first sin entered the wold also death came by it and therefore every element of creation had to face death and decay without any difference between plant, animal or human. (Ecclesiastes 3:19,20) All had to go to that one place, the grave, to become dust again. (Genesis 3:19; Ecclesiastes 12:7) In Acts 7:16 it is said that Jacob was “laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.” Moses, Elisha, King David were placed in a sepulchre. Kings (1 Kings 2:10) and prophets (1 Samuel 25:1) were generally buried within cities. Graves were generally grottoes or caves, natural or hewn out in rocks (Isaia 22:16; Matthew 27:60). There were family cemeteries (Genesis 47:29; 50:5; 2 Samuel 19:37). Public burial-places like gehenna outside Jerusalem, were assigned to the poor (Jeremia 26:23; 2 Kings 23:6). Graves were usually closed with stones, which were whitewashed, to warn strangers against contact with them (Matthew 23:27), which caused ceremonial pollution (Numeri 19:16). There were no graves in Jerusalem except those of the kings, and according to tradition that of the prophetess Huldah.
Joseph of Arimathea provided his own newly made sepulchre for use of Jesus from Nazareth (Matthew 27:57-60) who also went into the hell of death. 

In English there are less synonyms to be found for the word Sheol as in Dutch, and lots of people stick to the word “Hell” but taking it not as a place to bring the dead people to, but as a place of torture. This is an idea coming from imaginative thoughts of human people in previous times. Christians should stick to the Hebrew and Biblical thoughts, which is “the grave”.

Here you can find a list of Dutch translation words which are used for the Hebrew word “sheol” SHEOL () & of uncertain etymology (see Sheol, Critical View), from the Assyro-Babylonian loan-word, “Shu’alu, meaning “the place whither the dead are cited or bidden,” or “the place where the dead are ingathered.”, “synonym of “bor” (pit), “abaddon” and “shaḥat” (pit or destruction), and perhaps also of “tehom” (abyss), with the English translation if we could find one:

(“the cords of Sheol”)+ (“and the pains of Sheol”) = implying restraint or capture.

Clearly according texts in the Bible (see some quotes underneath):

Sheol is the place underneath in the earth where dead people are placed. For those people their live has come to an end, and they shall not be able to use anything from this world when they died. When one dies the brain stops working and the body comes to decay. They also shall not be able to think or speak or do anything in their grave or tomb. They will be in a stadium as before they were born, without any wisdom or possibility to consideration, because they will be without any thought. You can compare it with a deep sleep and is therefore also called: the sleep of the death. People can also say “they fell asleep” meaning their live ended, or “they died”.

Sheol was the place were dead bodies were either put into the ground or buried. Hades was the place underneath in the ground where the corpses found their last resort.

As such the Hebrew words Sheool and Hades got translated as: (in Dutch and English)

Graf: grave, tomb, sepulchre + een graf delven, een sheol make: to dig a grave; hij ligt in sheol/sheool/sjeool/hades: he is lying in his grave; he’s six foot under + opstaan uit sheool; uit het graf opstaan: arise from the grave

Sheool, Graf (begraafplaats): burial place, grave, tomb, sepulchre

English: Tomb within the churchyard of St Sepu...

English: Tomb within the churchyard of St Sepulchre without Newgate (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Sheool; laatste rustplaats: grave, resting-place

dodenrijk, onderwereld, hades: underworld, hades, shades, sheol

Iemand/iets/ een geheim in sheool nemen: to take some one/ some thing/ a secret  (with one) to the grave

begraafplaats: cemetry, graveyard, burial ground, memorial park; algemene begraafplaats: public cemetry

grafplaats:

grafakker:

Gods Akker, doden akker: (field of God), God’s acre, last resting-place of the dead

laatste rustplaats: last resting-place (of the dead)

Akker des Heren: (field of the Lord)

dodenakker: (field of the dead)

dodentempel: mortuary temple

Golghotha:

catacombe: catacomb

crypte: crypt

sarcofaag: (doodskist) sarcophagus: sarcophagus; (omhulsel): sarcophagus

sarcophaag (stenen opbergplaats), sarcophagus:  (stone) sarcophagus

doodskist: sarcophagus

bijzetplaats: (place for interment)

bijzetting: interment, burial

ter aarde bestelling:

grafruimte: commit to the earth, inhume, inter

begraven, ter aarde bestellen, sheool laten toebhoren / tot sheool geven: inhume

grafstede, qeber: (Hebrew qeber)

graftombe: tomb, sepulchre

grafkuil: burial pit

aardkuil: (pit in the earth)

pottenbank

familiegraf: family grave/tomb ; (grafkelder): family vault

erfgraf: (hereditary grave)

kindergraf: children’s grave

grafspelonk:

koepelgraf: beehive tomb

keldergraf:

familiekelder: (family vault)

grafgewelf: (vault tomb)

crypte: crypt

grafgang:

eregraf: (tomb of honour, mausoleum)

praalgraf: mausoleum

mausoleum: mausoleum

tempelgraf: mausoleum

tombe: tomb

eretombe: mausoleum

pantheon: pantheon

columbarium: columbarium

urneplaats:  (place for the urn)

urnemuur: (a wall for the urn)

reuzengraf: (a huge/giant grave/tomb) (mega grave/tomb) (monumental grave/tomb)

reuzenbed: dolmen, cromlech

dolmen: dolmen

File:Vancouver megalith.jpg

A megalithic structure in Vancouver – photo: Christoffer

hunnebed: megalith, megalithic tomb, megalithic monument, megalithic grave

grafheuvel, gadisj: (burial hill), tumulus; (Hebrew “gadisj”)

grafterp: grave mound, tumulus, barrow

tumulus: tumulus

langgraf: long barrow

(doden draagbaar/berrie/burrie/lamoen): barrow

piramide: piramid

konus:

grafmonument:

cenotaaf; cenotaphium: cenotaph

gedenkteken: cenotaphgrafzuil:

grafnaald:

grafsteen: gavestone, tombstone, headstone

tombesteen: tombstone

grafgesteente:

grafzerk: gravestone, tombstone, (gave/tomb) slab, ledger

herrinneringsgraf: (Greek “taphos”: tomb)

lijkgesteente:

grafnis: burial niche

grafplaat: memorial plaque/tablet, (groot = when big) memorial slab

graftablet: memorial tablet

grafbord,

gewijde grond: sacred ground

graftuin: (grave garden) (cemetry; graveyard)

begraafplaats: cemtry, graveyard, burial ground/place, memorial park,  (algemene/openbare begraafplatats): public cemetry

campo-santo:

knokelplaats, ossarium:

knekelhuis, beenderhuis, osuarium: ossuary

beenderurn, ossuarium: ossuary

beenderengrot, ossuarium: ossuary

beenderhoop:

ligplaats tussen vier planken:

ligplaats voor eeuwig: [(mooring(place) for ever]

laatste ankerplaats, laatste tolplaats, den dieperik, poort tot het eeuwig e (niets/leven), pierenkuil, put voor de gecrepeerden, put/kuil der ruste, bij de mieren zijn, plaats van ontbinding, lijkenstek, lijkenplaats,, knekelmansplaats, doodskistenplaats, kadaver plaats/ruimte,

aan de schoot der aarde toevertrouwen, onder de grond stoppen, in de put steken,een lijk bijzetten, lijken verbranden/verassen,

schimmenrijk: realm of spirits/ghosts, underworld, hades

*

Bible quotes:

“”Ask the LORD your God for a sign, whether in the deepest depthsor in the highest heights.”” (Isaiah 7:11 NIV)“You went to Molech with olive oil and increased your perfumes. You sent your ambassadors far away; you descended to the graveitself!” (Isaiah 57:9 NIV)“Therefore no other trees by the waters are ever to tower proudly on high, lifting their tops above the thick foliage. No other trees so well-watered are ever to reach such a height; they are all destined for death, for the earth below, among mortal men, with those who go down to the pit.” (Ezekiel 31:14 NIV)“For great is your love towards me; you have delivered me from the depths of the grave.” (Psalms 86:13 NIV)“For a fire has been kindled by my wrath, one that burns to the realm of death below. It will devour the earth and its harvests and set on fire the foundations of the mountains.” (Deuteronomy 32:22 NIV)“I called on your name, O LORD, from the depths of the pit.” (Lamentations 3:55 NIV)

“then I will bring you down with those who go down to the pit, to the people of long ago. I will make you dwell in the earth below, as in ancient ruins, with those who go down to the pit, and you will not return or take your place in the land of the living.” (Ezekiel 26:20 NIV)

“”Elam is there, with all her hordes around her grave. All of them are slain, fallen by the sword. All who had spread terror in the land of the living went down uncircumcised to the earth below. They bear their shame with those who go down to the pit.” (Ezekiel 32:24 NIV)

“But little do they know that the dead are there, that her guests are in the depths of the grave.” (Proverbs 9:18 NIV)

“You went to Molech with olive oil and increased your perfumes. You sent your ambassadors far away; you descended to the grave itself!” (Isaiah 57:9 NIV)

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“But little do they know that the dead are there, that her guests are in the depths of the grave.” (Proverbs 9:18 NIV)

“”If only you would hide me in the grave and conceal me till your anger has passed! If only you would set me a time and then remember me!” (Job 14:13 NIV)

“They went down alive into the grave, with everything they owned; the earth closed over them, and they perished and were gone from the community.” (Numbers 16:33 NIV)

“When their spirit departs, they return to the ground; on that very day their plans come to nothing.” (Psalms 146:4 NIV)

No-one remembers you when he is dead. Who praises you from his grave?” (Psalms 6:5 NIV)

“When men tell you to consult mediums and spiritists, who whisper and mutter, should not a people enquire of their God? Why consult the dead on behalf of the living?” (Isaiah 8:19 NIV)

“But your dead will live; their bodies will rise. You who dwell in the dust, wake up and shout for joy. Your dew is like the dew of the morning; the earth will give birth to her dead.” (Isaiah 26:19 NIV)

“For the grave cannot praise you, death cannot sing your praise; those who go down to the pit cannot hope for your faithfulness.” (Isaiah 38:18 NIV)

“10 Let no-one be found among you who sacrifices his son or daughter in the fire, who practises divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft, 11 or casts spells, or who is a medium or spiritist or who consults the dead. 12 Anyone who does these things is detestable to the LORD, and because of these detestable practices the LORD your God will drive out those nations before you.” (Deuteronomy 18:10-12 NIV)

“13 Saul died because he was unfaithful to the LORD; he did not keep the word of the LORD, and even consulted a medium for guidance, 14 and did not enquire of the LORD. So the LORD put him to death and turned the kingdom over to David son of Jesse.” (1 Chronicles 10:13-14 NIV)

“For the living know that they will die, but the dead know nothing; they have no further reward, and even the memory of them is forgotten.” (Ecclesiastes 9:5 NIV)

“Whatever your hand finds to do, do it with all your might, for in the grave, where you are going, there is neither working nor planning nor knowledge nor wisdom.” (Ecclesiastes 9:10 NIV)

“19 Man’s fate is like that of the animals; the same fate awaits them both: As one dies, so dies the other. All have the same breath; man has no advantage over the animal. Everything is meaningless. 20 All go to the same place; all come from dust, and to dust all return.” (Ecclesiastes 3:19-20 NIV)

“It is not the dead who praise the LORD, those who go down to silence;” (Psalms 115:17 NIV)

“25 David said about him: “‘I saw the Lord always before me. Because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken. 26 Therefore my heart is glad and my tongue rejoices; my body also will live in hope, 27 because you will not abandon me to the grave, nor will you let your Holy One see decay.” (Acts 2:25-27 NIV)

“”For when David had served God’s purpose in his own generation, he fell asleep; he was buried with his fathers and his body decayed.” (Acts 13:36 NIV)

“The cords of the grave coiled around me; the snares of death confronted me.” (2 Samuel 22:6 NIV)

“What man can live and not see death, or save himself from the power of the grave? Selah” (Psalms 89:48 NIV)

“18 For the grave cannot praise you, death cannot sing your praise; those who go down to the pit cannot hope for your faithfulness. 19 The living, the living—they praise you, as I am doing today; fathers tell their children about your faithfulness.” (Isaiah 38:18-19 NIV)

“7  Where can I go from your Spirit? Where can I flee from your presence? 8 If I go up to the heavens, you are there; if I make my bed in the depths, you are there.” (Psalms 139:7-8 NIV)

Death and Destruction lie open before the LORD—how much more the hearts of men!” (Proverbs 15:11 NIV)

“Though they dig down to the depths of the grave, from there my hand will take them. Though they climb up to the heavens, from there I will bring them down.” (Amos 9:2 NIV)

“Like sheep they are destined for the grave, and death will feed on them. The upright will rule over them in the morning; their forms will decay in the grave, far from their princely mansions.” (Psalms 49:14 NIV)

“Seeing what was ahead, he spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that he was not abandoned to the grave, nor did his body see decay.” (Acts 2:31 NIV)

“The wicked return to the grave, all the nations that forget God.” (Psalms 9:17 NIV)

“8 The eye that now sees me will see me no longer; you will look for me, but I will be no more. 9 As a cloud vanishes and is gone, so he who goes down to the grave does not return.” (Job 7:8-9 NIV)

“Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned—” (Romans 5:12 NIV)

“For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ.” (Romans 5:17 NIV)

“For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.” (Romans 5:19 NIV)

“For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” (Romans 6:23 NIV)

“For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive.” (1 Corinthians 15:22 NIV)

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Please read also:
  1. SHEOL – JewishEncyclopedia.com
    Hebrew word of uncertain etymology (see Sheol, Critical View), synonym of “bor” (pit), “abaddon” and “shaḥat” (pit or destruction), and perhaps also of “tehom”
  2. Dead and after
  3. Sheol or the grave
  4. Soul
  5. Destination of righteous
  6. Hellfire
  7. Immortality, eternality – onsterfelijkheid, eeuwigheid
  8. Dying or not
  9. Decomposition, decay – vergaan, afsterven, ontbinding
  10. Jesus three days in hell
  11. Fragments from the Book of Job #1: chapters 1-12
  12. Fragments from the Book of Job #2: chapters 12-20
  13. Fragments from the Book of Job #3: chapters 21-26
  14. Fragments from the Book of Job #4: chapters 27-31
  15. Fragments from the Book of Job #5: chapters 32-37
  16. Another way looking at a language #3 Abraham
  17. Fear and protection
  18. Fear of God reason to return to Holy Scriptures
  19. When Jesus was crucified, did he descend into hell for a period of time before rising again?
    The belief that Jesus descended into hell when he died is based on a misunderstanding of three Bible passages.  Here is one of them. Acts 2:25-27 (New English Translation): 25 For David says about him, ‘I saw the Lord always in front of me, for he is at my right hand so that I will [...]
  20. Will atheists go to hell?
    Most atheists are not going to be judged by God at all.  No one is judged by God unless they knew and believed his law, and still broke it:  Romans 4:15; 5:13;7:7; 1 John 3:4.  However, no one goes to ‘hell’, as it is popularly thought of.
  21. Who is the woman in the nether-world and why is she there?
    This question is based on Proverbs 5 from the JPS translation: Proverbs 5:3-5 (JPS) For the lips of a strange woman drop honey, and her mouth is smoother than oil; But her end is bitter as wormwood, sharp as a two-edged sword. Her feet go down to death; her steps take hold on the nether-world; [...]
  22. Where is hell?
    In the King James Version, the word hell occurs 54 times, but in almost every case it is a translation of one of three different words, each with its own meaning. So to understand hell, we really need to understand the original Hebrew and Greek words that are translated hell. These are: Sheol, Hades and [...]
  23. Can you be conscious and dead?
    No. According to the Bible, death is a state of unconciousness as a person turns to dust. This is stated repeatedly. Here are some examples. For in death there is no remembrance of you [God]; in Sheol who will give you praise? (Psalm 6:5) The dead do not praise the Lord, nor do any who [...]
  24. Sheol
  25. Sheol, the term in Hebrew means a grave or pit, was the place where the dead gathered, as thought by the early Hebrews, and was believed located beneath
  26. What is the fate of children who die?

 

  • Jesus went to Hell and so will We (fredswolfe.wordpress.com)
    If you have read my book or Ecclesiastes you will know that there is no memory, or thinking or imagination or any brain activity at all, in the grave “wither thou goest!”
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    The Question of Hell? (fredswolfe.wordpress.com)
    Everyone with the exception of Jesus Christ, who has lived and died is now in Hell. Yes, all dead Christians, Jews, Muslims, and everyone else are there. The problem is that most people do not understand Hell. In both the Hebrew and the Greek, hell is the grave and is not to be confused with the Lake of Fire. No one is burning in hell  at this moment and no one will be conscious of being in the Lake of Fire (at a future date) except the False Prophet, the Beast and the devil. If this were not so, the whole Bible would fall apart. Jesus Christ is the only person who has ever lived and died and is alive anywhere today. Everyone else is dead and in the grave.
  • The World After Death (socyberty.com)
    Many people think that after death, people will go to Heaven or Hell. But humans are not likely to directly go to Heaven or Hell. For that we need to learn a few things about the world after death. Through a Christian magazine “Solagratia”, I found an article that discusses the world after death. Here’s a brief summary of the World After Death which are summarized by an article in the magazine “Solagratia” is.
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    GehennaThe word is derived from the Hebrew “ge Hinnom” which allegedly means “weeping”.Tarturus

    This word means “dark caves”. When translated by the verb, the word means “throw into hell”.

  • Architecture…deconstructing Hell (thewearypilgrim.typepad.com)
    Hell has become the trump card in the game of evangelism.
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    And from our earliest imagination, we construct Sheol…the exit door off the grand stage of life’s drama through which mysteriously enough every character will leave.
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    Really, Hell is of our own making. We chose a word in a place and time. Was there a better word that could have been chosen, a word with less baggage that didn’t come with cultural, and mythological influence.
  • Burial in Ancient Israel: Rock Cut Tombs (frstephensmuts.wordpress.com)
    The dead were wrapped in a shroud (and, on occasion, placed in a coffin) and then placed on these benches. Bodies may well have been treated with oil, herbs, resins, and other methods, many of them adapted from Israel’s extensive experience of foreign cultures. As the tombs were used and reused by families over many generations, bones would be removed to make way for new bodies. (We will address what happened to them in the next post.) Thus, we have a practical connection the Biblical phrase. “And all that generation also were gathered to their fathers” (Judges 2:10 and elsewhere). People were, quite literally, gathered to their fathers.
  • Tombs of the Apostles: Slideshow (history.com)
    archaeologists excavating the ancient Greco-Roman city of Hierapolis, located in southwestern Turkey, reported that they found a tomb believed to be that of St. Philip the Apostle.
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Edward Wightman

Posted on September 6, 2012. Filed under: Announcement, Christendom and Christianity, History, Jesus Christ Jeshua the Messiah Jahushua | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

One of the Pilgrims to the New World was the Wightman family. Edward Wightman (Burbage, December 20, 1566 – April 11, 1612) has the rather unenvied distinction of being the last of the religious martyrs in England to be burned at the stake. He was a Separatist (the same religion as the Mayflower passengers followed), which did not go over well with the Church of England, the only accepted religion of England back in the early 1600′s.

Edward Wightman born at Wykin Hall, Burbage, near Hinckley, was most likely as it happened in te 16° Century, baptised, as most infants were christened. He went to Burton Grammar School, served an apprenticeship as a woolen draper in the town of Shrewsbury and entered the clothiers business of his mother’s family. In 1593 he married Frances Darbye of Hinckley and settled in Burton.

Featley correctly notes the several sorts of “anabaptists” that existed in the 1640s

Edward Wightman was a person who wanted to know God and wanted to serve Him how God wanted it, and not how the State wanted the people to worship. He became very interested in the ideas of the anabaptists and became a minister of the local Baptist Church.

Martin Luther‘s view of the “soul sleep” interested him and by going through the Bible several times he got a more clear view. It seems that he must have been a very important religious and well-respected public figure, because in 1596 he was chosen as one of the leaders assigned to the investigation of demonic possession by 13 year old Thomas Darling. His involvement in the Darling case proved a turning point in his life, making him entirely amenable to the possibility of unmediated spiritual intervention. Darling claimed not just to be possessed by the devil, but engaged in a series of ‘spiritual wars’ in which both demonic and angelic voices were said to emanate from him:

“As I know at this present for a certainty, that I have the spirit of God within me: so do I with the like certainty believe, that in my dialogues with Satan, when I [quoted] sundry places of scripture, to withstand the temptations he assaulted me with: I had the spirit of God in me, and by that spirit resisted Satan at those times, by [quoting] the scriptures to confound him.” (S. Harsnett, A Discovery of the Fraudulent Practices of John Darrel, London, 1599, p 290.)

When you think that there are fallen angels who are devils, they would need a place to reside. When they hoover over the earth and try to catch people in their nets, others could see the damage those devils do to people. Would it be right when somebody else brings some one into doing the wrong things and when he got caught would be punished, but afterwards when he got his earthy penalty, once more he would have to die for his sins, and than again he would receive an third punishment, going into purgatory or in hell. But when people already spoke out the punishment on earth and afterwards fallen angels decided to get that person in their  living quarters to be put to torture once more, what or whom had Christ Jesus than to judge when he would come back?

When people were wrung with anguish at lifetime with fear of the possibility to go to purgatory or in the worst case to hell to be tortured for ever, going into that doomplace for ever Jesus would not be able to get them out and would not have to judge them any more, because they were already judged and and sentenced on earth and in hell.

Wightman came more to the understanding of the mortality of the soul, adopting the “soul sleep” view of Martin Luther. In one of his early public messages he preached that “the soul of man dies with the body and participates not either of the joys of Heaven or the pains of Hell, until the general Day of Judgment, but rested with the body until then.”

He also got to see that this judge after Armageddon was going to sit next to his father, who was the Most High God. Also afterwards Jesus was going to hand over the Kingdom of God to His Father. So for Wightman there were too many signs in the Bible that Jesus Christ is not perfect God and of the same substance, eternity and majesty with the Father in respect of the Godhead.

Having now the Bible in his own mother-tongue he could find many answers to his questions about the person Jesus, his Father and the Holy Spirit. He came to the conclusion that the ‘Person’ of the Holy Ghost is not God co-equal, co-eternal and co-essential with the Father, who is One God, and the Son who is son of man.

His ideas

  • THAT the (Nicene and Athanasian) creeds are the heresies of the Nicolaitans
  • THAT the soul doth sleep in the sleep of the first death as well as the body and is mortal, and that the soul of the Lord Jesus Christ did sleep in that sleep of death as well as his body
  • THAT the souls of the elect saints departed are not members of the triumphant church in heaven

where not liked by the rulers and where notated in the Royal Writ from King James I sent to the Bishop of Lichfield in 1612 ordering his arrest and execution.

Wightman was fully aware of the king’s firmly orthodox stance, yet he set about to combat both his State and Church. Of the handful of fragments of his defence treatise that have survived, he refers to the doctrine and “heresies of the Nicolaitan;… most of all hated and abhorred of God himself … the common received faith contained in those three inventions of man, commonly called the Three Creeds … the [Apostles’], Nicene and Athanasius Creed, which faith within these 1600 years past hath prevailed in the world.” (Bodleian Library, ms Ashmole, A True Relation of the Commissions and Warrants for the Condemnation and Burning of Bartholomew Legate and Thomas Withman, 1521 B, 7, 1a–1b, London, 1651, p. 8.)

For many Christians it was “heresy” and the teachings of this radical where an atrocity to the common goods and values.

There had come into existence different orthodox groups, but Wightman had by now isolated himself from all the others, by his so weird ideas, calling into question many tenets of orthodox belief. For most people  not baptised persons where from the devil and could not come before God but landed straight into hell when they died. So it was considered a horrendous act not to baptize the infants. For Wightman it was an abominable custom to keep doing the practice of the Sacraments as they were used in the Church of England. Those so called Sacraments according to Christ his Institution are totally against the teachings of Christ and not conform the practices of the first Christians. for him it was clear that “only the sacrament of baptism is to be administered in water to converts of sufficient age of understanding converted from infidelity to the faith”.

In Belgium many preachers of the baptism at a later age had been prosecuted. But they had also been killed for a teaching that looked even more horrible and is often today considered as totally out of bounds. There  was a great public rejection of Trinitarianism. It was presumably on these points that he so vehemently rejected the formulae of the Nicene Creed of 325 and the subsequent ‘Athanasius’ Creed of 381. (Both of the Creeds had been structured primarily as responses to Arian denials of the Trinity. And like the Arians of the 4th century, Wightman flatly denied them.)

Following the words of the Bible, he could not find any grounds to believe in such Trinity which was never mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. After reading the Bible over and over again he could only come to the conclusion that the doctrine of the Trinity was a total fabrication. Following the essence of the Bible he got to see the true value of Jesus his actions. Only by being a man it all makes sense, having generations waiting such a long time, before the Messiah came to deliver them. Now he could understand why it took such a long time before there was somebody who could live up to the difficult standards of purity. All being descendants of the first sinners, everybody, also Jesus, as a man, had to fight against the temptations, while God even cannot be tempted. Stating that Christ was only a man “and a mere Creature and not both God and man in one person… [Although this did not mean that Christ was a man like all others but] only a perfect man without sin.” was considered over the top. (Bodleian Library, ms Ashmole, A True Relation of the Commissions, p 5.)

He also argued the Old Testament priesthood being abolished and now all Christians are in the priesthood. He also argued the Ecclesia is the church and not the “steeplehouse”, and may meet anywhere. for him it was clear that preaching goes before baptism and that the Church of England is not a church of God. For him the church of Christ was and is the only church, and hence, not a denomination.

He got to see and preached that men have free-will, not only in natural and moral, but also in spiritual actions, that man has freedom to choose or reject God’s Grace whereby they may be saved (through baptism by immersion, after repentance and confession)

There was no choice to put him on the stake on ‘Ordinance for the Punishment of Blasphemies and Heresies’, “principally those of the triune God, the resurrection, the last judgment, and that the Bible is the Word of God…relapse is to be punished as felony with death without benefit of clergy.”

But like many believers at the continent, who preferred to believe that the Bible is the Word of God and can explain everything, and that we should listen to that word and not as such to the Word of the Church, made that the power of the Church was undermined. Therefore those who preached such things should have been done away with. It was unacceptable that people would listen more to what is written in the Bible than what the Church predicated.

That Christianity is not wholly professed and preached in the Church of England, was much over the borderline and therefore, with the for them heretical teachings this unorthodoxy had to be called to an end, before he could get more converts.

The time he was living in was an age where it was dangerous to disagree with church teachings. And yet, the reason why Wightman believed different things was because he read the Bible and came to the conclusion that church doctrines were not taught in the pages of Holy Scripture. His will to hold vast to the teachings of the Bible, like many at the continent, brought that he was confronted with the investigation about his beliefs and with the punishment to die at the stake.

On the appointed date, Edward Wightman was taken to the stake, tied up, and set on fire. Immediately he started screaming and shouting out unintelligible words. For some strange reason, the townsfolk and the sheriffs got it into their heads that he was recanting his religious beliefs, so they quickly doused out the flames, untied him and cooled him off.

Burning at Stake

Burning at Stake

Once released, he continued to preach his heresies even more strongly than before, so a few days later they tied him back to the stake, and this time burned him to ashes, in Lichfield Market Place on 11th April 1612, where a plaque still commemorates his status as “the last person in England so to die”. Narrowly edging out another accused anti-Trinitarian and heretic, Bartholomew Legate, burned in London three weeks earlier. History has marked him as a heretic, but perhaps he should be remembered simply because he read his Bible for himself.

To Edward Wightman, it mattered what you believed. It wasn’t enough to agree with the priest, every man had a duty to find the Bible Truth out for himself, and then to stand up for it. Such an attitude is quite rare today, but the Christadelphians are among those who firmly base their beliefs on the Bible and no other authority. In fact, we would agree with Wightman on all of the above statements which were taken into the accusation.

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Burton Library is hosting a talk about Edward Wightman on Monday 17th September, where Dr Ian Atherton of Keele University will speak on the subject ‘Edward Wightman: The Burton Heretic’. Tickets cost £3.50 or £3.00 for library members, and are available at the library or on 01283 239556. This talk is not affiliated to the Christadelphians.

Burton – Square in Lichfield next to Saint Mary’s church were the fire was lit under Edward Wightman of Burton-on-Trent

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Read also:

Edward Wightman: The Burton ‘Heretic’

Twice-Baked

Twice Baked Englishman – Edward Wightman 1566-1612

We’ll be heading to England this summer (2010), so I decided it might be fun to trace an ancestor back to the town where he or she originated and pay the town a visit. I broke out the genealogical charts my mother made and began the search. The Pryor line currently peters out in 1818, still in America, so I turned to other family charts.
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The story begins with James I, king of England, a monarch who considered himself a learned scholar of theology. (He had been dubbed “The wisest fool in Christendom”) He was the eldest son of Mary Queen of Scots, the very same Mary who was beheaded by order of Elizabeth I for “Treason”, which really meant she was a threat to the throne. Mary had strong Catholic support in Scotland, England and abroad, while Elizabeth was backed by protestants.
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Edward Wightman was a devout and passionate man. Obstinate was a word sometimes used to describe him. He was a Baptist minister and a successful businessman. The late 16th century was a highly superstitious time throughout most of the western world and it was generally accepted by scholars and clergy alike that things like witches and demonic possession really, truely existed.
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Edward was returned to the jail, where he was presented with documentation to sign recanting his heretical views. Edward carefully read them over, but surprised everyone by refusing to sign them. They gave him a few days to recover and then presented the documents to him again. He again refused to sign, despite the fact they assured him they would complete the burning next time. This went on for three weeks, which would seem to indicated they really didn’t relish the idea of burning a man alive and wanted to provide every opportunity to prevent it.

Finally, on April 11th 1612, he was taken back to the public square:

“[Wightman] was carried again to the stake where feeling the heat of the fire he again would have recanted, but for all his crying the sheriff told him he should cost him no more and commanded faggots to be set to him whence roaring, he was burned to ashes.”

It is said that to his last breath he died blaspheming.

Edward Wightman of Burton-on-Trent the last person to be executed by burning at the stake for heresy in England in 1612.

1612 Last Heretic – Edward Wightman
The first day of the trial was held on November 19, 1611. On the second day of the trial on November 26, the crowd was so large that the trial had to be moved to the larger space of the Chapel of the Blessed Virgin. On December 5, Edward was brought before the court for his final appearance. Throughout the trial, Edward did not attempt to defend himself. Instead, he attempted to educate them on the righteousness and intellectual rigor of his arguments, ‘clarifying’ the court’s conception of his heresies.
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Seeing that heresy still survived with a number of religious radicals still emerging, King James I lost faith in burning heretics. After the case of Edward Wightman, it was decided that those found guilty of heresy should instead silently and privately waste away in prison rather than excite others with a public execution.

It was not until 1677 that an act of Parliament expressly forbade the burning of heretics, securing once and for all, Wightman’s dubious position in history as ‘The last person in England to be burned at the stake for heresy’.

Wigthman Families International
The authorities began to take an interest in the outspoken Wightman, particularly when he denounced the Trinity as false, and claimed he was the Messiah. Yet he continued to preach unmolested — until, foolishly, he presented a petition to King James I last year, in which he expounded his belief.
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Wightman’s story is a strange and tragic one, particularly for the family he has left behind. For many years he ran a successful mercer’s business in Burton-on-Trent, and lived happily with his wife and small son.
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The Wightman Family has a long history of family associations. Extensive research has been done in the past, several books have been written, and more recently many web sites have been established.
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The Family Name

Origin of the Family Motto

Wightman Family Coat of Arms

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  • Jesus went to Hell and so will We (fredswolfe.wordpress.com)
    If you have read my book or Ecclesiastes you will know that there is no memory, or thinking or imagination or any brain activity at all, in the grave “wither thou goest!”
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    No matter what version of the Bible you choose to use, when we die we all go to the same place where there is no awareness that we are even dead. Jesus Christ tasted death just like we will, with one exception: we will rot away.
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    Here you can see how Hades, Sheol and Hell are used interchangeably. These words have nothing to do with the Lake of Fire, which was used figuratively of the dump burning outside of Jerusalem.
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    The Question of Hell? (fredswolfe.wordpress.com)
  • Atrocity (zwingliusredivivus.wordpress.com)
    Speechless.  First, it presumes Satan reads pentebabbleist books and second that he has any concern with pentebabbleist parents.  Why would he?  They’re already on his side with their false doctrine, their ‘theology of glory’ (in Luther’s terminology), and their nonsensical sub-Christian spiritualism (not spirituality).
  • Religion and Politics Hmmmm (charliecountryboy.wordpress.com)
    Why is it that people say, “No politics and no religion”. The most interesting, controversial topics in the universe and they don’t want to talk about them. This comment is usually followed by, “They’re boring.”
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    the only schools that will have their religious education removed are Protestant, you try to take it away from the Catholics, Muslims and Jews and see what happens.
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    jessicaembarlow says: I agree with religion in schools, I’m not religious but I think those classes could be used for teaching kids about various religions around the world so they’re not ignorant as well as some sort of spiritual classes etc instead of ditching them altogether.
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    exceedingspeed says: I believe people are their politics and have learned that is why disagreements can become so heated and personal. As to religion in schools, presenting the world’s religions as a lens for understanding diversity and tolerance is a good thing. Unfortunately, it is the people, not the practice, that tend to become dogmatic. But, I liked the Children’s Lives of the Saints which is actually pretty gruesome.
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    buddyhell says: I can remember a time when you could walk into a pub find a sign that said “No politics. No religion”. The thing is, you won’t get this sort of attitude on the continent. If you walk into a bar in France or Germany, you will always find people talking about politics and religion (mainly politics). But then, politics in Britain was once the sole preserve of the aristocracy and landed gentry and for that reason, many people feel alienated from the political system. Then there’s the aftermath of Culloden, when it was forbidden to sing Jacobite songs (there were English Jacobites too). Politics is never boring. The feminists of the 1970s coined a very useful phrase, ” The personal is political”.
  • Use schools to ‘spread Christian story’(telegraph.co.uk)

    The Bishop of Oxford, the Rt Revd John Pritchard, chairman of the Church’s board of education, signalled a new move to promote religion through its schools.

    He told the Church’s General Synod meeting in York that plans are being drawn up to overhaul the entire curriculum to reflect the Christian foundation “in every part”. He also called for clergy to be trained to maximise their use of schools to extend the church’s “mission”.

  • Prayer in Fear and Horror of Death and Hell. (Luther) (deprofundisclamaviadtedomine.wordpress.com)
    Dear Lord Christ, even though I have not fulfilled the law, and even though sin still very much remains within me, and I am afraid of death and hell–I still know this from the Gospel, that You have given me all Your works as a free gift.
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Fear and protection

Posted on August 5, 2012. Filed under: Being Christian, following Jesus Christ, Endtimes, Life and Death, Religion, Satan and Evil, World | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Massacres allowed to happen

The Aurora, Colorado massacre, brought many debates about believes and about carrying weapons. It is unbelievable that many people do really want to believe it would not be so bad in case more people would have weapons on them. Often with such massacres, we mostly can find in the United States of America, and when they occasional happen in other countries, the shooters found their example in the American shooting. In many other countries such atrocious things can not happen because ordinary people are not able to get arms so easy.

But at such occasions also many people wonder how a God can allow such things to happen. They often are not accustomed to know the history of mankind from the early beginnings in the Garden of Eden, where the first man and woman doubted the right of the position their Creator took. It is because they could not agree with His right to decide what would be best or how people had to handle, though God had given a lot which they could decide themselves. They were already allowed to name things and to take care of everything on earth. But they wanted more. For that reason God gave them more. He allowed them to take care of much more. So from the time Adam and Eve committed their first sin, they had to find out everything for themselves. All their children and their children their children had to find their own way to live. They all had received form God to make their own choices.

Masaccio, Brancacci Chapel, Adam and Eve, detail.

Masaccio, Brancacci Chapel, Adam and Eve, detail. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

So still today, we all do have the opportunity to make our own choices. But we should be aware we can not blame God for the choices we made ourselves.

Choice to listen

Though, those who are wiling to listen to God, He surely shall want to help them and be with them. God protects his children from harm sometimes, but not at other times.  God uses circumstances to refine the characters of his children. In case God would go into all the questions of His followers that would be not always righteous to the others, and at such time other people could say they are only following God because than they get what they want.

People should also understand that not everything is done at once. But when they do love God He shall be willing to set his love also upon them, therefore He the Most High shall be offering refuge and be as a fortress for those who trust Him. Whatever may happen to us in the world, Jehovah Yahuwah God will deliver those who are for God and honour Him. They may trust that there shall come a moment that they shall be taken away, saved from the snare of the fowler, and from the deadly pestilence. He will cover them with his pinions, and under his wings shall they be able to take refuge. His truth is a shield and a buckler, and they will feel it.  For that reason we do not have to be afraid for the terror by night or day, nor for the bullets that flies by day or night. Even for the diseases, for the pestilence that walks in darkness, nor for the destruction that wastes at noonday.

The Words of God may be tried and mocked at, but they shall keep stand. God shall proof to the others that He is a bucler, who has been for ever and shall stay for ever. God can not be killed, but had to face that His son was killed and so many of his followers. He shall take into account why those followers had to die.

Trusting God

Humankind has been warned that it can be that a thousand shall fall at the side of many others, but when it happens near to us we should trust God. We better have the fear of God instead of the fear of humans, who only can bring us, in the worst instance, to a physical death. But they too shall have to die at one moment. No matter what happens everybody dies one day, and then their live shall be finished. For those living in the Lord, their shall be hope for the time when the promised Messiah shall return to the earth, to judge the living and the dead.  That day shall be an important day. After we die it will be to late to prepare for it, or to change anything to become accepted. Now, when we are living beings on this planet, we have to prepare ourselves and to make sure we shall be ready and acceptable to come clean for the eyes of the judge Jesus.

We do not have to be afraid anybody would be able to escape the punishment he or she deserves. Everybody shall get their share one moment in time. Not perhaps the moment we would love to see it happen, but somewhere in future they shall get their share as well. At the mean time we shall have to be content, with the blessings we already can have today. We better count those blessings, instead of looking to those of others.

No matter what happens, at a certain time we shall behold with our eyes, and see the reward of the wicked.  There shall no evil befall Gods people, nor shall any plague come near them or God shall take notice of it and He will give his [heavenly] agents charge over those who keep His ways.

“Because he cleaves to Me in love, Therefore I deliver him; I set him on high, Because he has known My Name. “When he calls on Me, I answer him; I am with him in distress; I deliver him and esteem him. “With long life I satisfy him, And show him My deliverance.”
(Psalms 91:14-16 The Scriptures 1998+)

Following

In our live we should consider the difficulties Jesus, the most beloved son of God, had to encounter; and the problems this son of men his followers had by willing to follow  the Nazarene and by preaching like he had told them to do.

Jesus knew exactly his position on earth and knew who he had to follow and obey. But even when he or others knew the commandments, this would not make them good or certainly not better than somebody else. Though many Americans do want to believe the so called Christians that they are the most particular smartest group of people because they follow Christ. Instead of recognising that also other people, who do not believe or even did not hear about God or about Jesus Christ, could do good things. But doing good things does not make you a good person. The son of God never thought of himself to being a  good one because for him it was clear that none is good except One, God.

Instinct

File:Murder Rio.JPG

Murder in Rio

Jesus also told the people that it could be that they knew the commandments, like “You shall not commit adultery. You shall not murder. You shall not steal. You shall not testify falsely. You shall not defraud. You shall honour y our father and mother.” but that does not mean yet they would go and keep to them better than others who did not hear those commandments as being the Law of God. All people are namely created in the image of God, and therefore do have certain elements of God in them. All have, like animals, an instinct, by which they are able to know what can be good or bad for them.

The big problem with this current world is that many people do not listen to their inner voice. Lots of people do perhaps know what is best for them, but prefer to go other ways and want to take short-cuts. Often they are not so interested in the things or people around them, and want to gain as much as possible for themselves. This has become the main problem of this world, and not so much that the world is going away from Judeo-Christian Values. The Jew and Christians received the same values and Laws like everybody else in the world.

God loved so much His Creation He wanted the best for it, but it were and are still the stubborn human being who often think they can do better without Him. No matter how many think they can clear it without their Creator, God, in His love for humankind, gave His most beloved only begotten son, so that those who accept his position could have more chances to go through the small gate, to enter the Kingdom of God. But they also should know that it shall not be because they are baptised that they shall be saved for ever and be going to heaven or wherever they want to go to.

Jesus, God’s son, loved the whole world and was willing to die for all, but he was also aware that his death would not bring everybody into the Kingdom of his Father. Many would lack the requirements. He also warned the people that it is not because they would accept to follow him (Jeshua/Jesus) that everything would go smooth. No everybody had to face their problems and was still going to encounter difficulties and therefore had to take up their cross.

We may never forget that our baptism or our becoming Christian is not the freeway to be able to do whatever we want or to be higher placed than other people in this world.

We should consider in what we want to place our trust and what we do want to love from this world. We should be conscious how difficult it is for those who trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God. It is easier for a camel to go through the hole of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. But today many have gone for the richness of the world, and even think, it is only possible to come to a successful world, when Judeo-Christian values are taken care off, and when people are provided with arms so that they can defend themselves.

Arming and being safe

Jesus was against arms, so that is certainly already something against the teachings of Christ, who preached love and peace, while arms shall cause more division and pain.

Instead of accepting that we can not be saved by weapons, nor by people, the majority of the humans think the solution is in their hands and their political system. Though also Jesus knew we can not be without the political system as long as the Kingdom of God is not yet fully established, but in the mean time we should listen to those who are in power. As long as they do not bring  laws against the Law of God, everybody should follow those laws, and give the caesar, governor, president or king that what belongs to that ruler.

Jesus said that with men it shall be impossible to be safe, but not with God. For with God all things are possible. But as long as we are in this worldly system even the saviour Jesus could not escape from agony. Also the son of man was delivered to the chief priests and the scholars. And they condemned him to death, and delivered him to the Gentiles. And they mocked him, and scourged, and spit upon him, and killed him.

“And יהושע  {Jeshua} said to him, “Why do you call Me good? No one is good except One – Elohim. “You know the commands, ‘Do not commit adultery,’ ‘Do not murder,’ ‘Do not steal,’ ‘Do not bear false witness,’ ‘Do not rob,’ ‘Respect your father and your mother.’ ” And he answering, said to Him, “Teacher, all these I have watched over from my youth.” And יהושע  {Jeshua}, looking at him, loved him, and said to him, “One matter you lack: Go, sell all you possess and give to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven. And come, follow Me, taking up the stake.” But he, being sad at this word, went away grieved, for he had many possessions. And יהושע  {Jeshua}, looking around, said to His taught ones, “How hard it is for those who have riches to enter into the reign of Elohim!” And the taught ones were astonished at His words. And יהושע  {Jeshua} responding, said to them again, “Children, how hard it is for those who trust in riches to enter into the reign of Elohim! “It is easier for a camel to enter through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the reign of Elohim.” And they were immeasurably astonished, saying among themselves, “Who then is able to be saved?” And looking at them, יהושע  {Jeshua} said, “With men it is impossible, but not with Elohim, for with Elohim all is possible.” And Kbegan to say to Him, “See, we have left all and we have followed You.” יהושע  {Jeshua} said, “Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or father or mother or wife or children or lands, for the sake of Me and the Good News, who shall not receive a hundredfold now in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and lands, with persecutions, and in the age to come, everlasting life. “But many who are first shall be last, and the last first.” And they were on the way, going up to Yerushalayim, and יהושע  {Jeshua} was going before them. And they were astonished, and those who followed were afraid. And again He took the twelve aside and began to say to them what was about to befall Him: “See, we are going up to Yerushalayim, and the Son of Adshall be delivered to the chief priests and to the scribes, and they shall condemn Him to death and shall deliver Him to the gentiles, and they shall mock Him, and flog Him, and spit on Him, and kill Him. And the third day He shall rise again.”
(Mark 10:18-34 The Scriptures 1998+)

End according to works

File:Purgatory Plan.png

Plan of Mount Purgatory as described by Dante Alighieri in the Divine Comedy

Jesus who was Wounded for our transgressions and died for all sinners was directed by humans to go into hell. The day Jesus died his soul was delivered in the hands of God, though an innocent man, who did not do any sin, he was placed in hell. What did the Holy man do when he was considered by many the Messiah Jesus three days in hell? Did he not succeed to save the people who were supposed to be there to be tortured for their sins? Was his dying on the stake to pay for all sins of humankind a measure for nothing? Because when Jesus as the Lamb of God sprinkled his blood on this world for forgiveness of all sins, it looks like God not accepting this offer when He ask the sinners first to go to purgatory or to send them to hell even before Jesus can judge them at the end times, when the Messiah would return to judge the living and the death. But when hell is the place of eternal damnation, why was Jesus placed in it and how did he escape from it?

“It is not surprising, then, if his servants also masquerade as servants of righteousness,{1} whose end shall be according to their works!{2} {Footnotes: 1Mt. 7:15-23, 2 Peter 2:1-22. 2Mt. 13:41-42}. Again I say, let no one think me to be a fool. And if otherwise, at least receive me as a fool, for me to also boast a little. What I speak, I speak not according to the Master, but as in foolishness, in this boldness of boasting. Since many boast according to the flesh, I too shall boast. For you, being wise, put up with fools gladly! For you put up with it if anyone enslaves you, if anyone devours you, if anyone takes from you, if anyone exalts himself, if one hits you in the face. To my shame, I say that we were too weak for that! But in whatever anyone is bold – I say it in foolishness – I am bold also. Are they HebSo am I. Are they Yisra’So am I. Are they the seed of AbSo am I. Are they servants of Messiah? – I speak as beside myself – I am more, in labours much more, in stripes above measure, in prisons more frequently, in deaths many times. Five times I received from the Yehudforty stripes less one. Three times I was beaten with rods, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, a night and a day I have been in the deep, in many travels, in dangers of waters, in dangers of robbers, in dangers from my own race, in dangers from the gentiles, in dangers in the city, in dangers in the desert, in dangers in the sea, in dangers among false brothers; in toil and hardship, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness, besides the matters from outside, what comes upon me daily: the anxiety for all the assemblies. Who is weak, and I am not weak? Who is made to stumble, and I do not burn inwardly? If I have to boast, I shall boast of matters that show up my weakness. The Elohim and Father of our Master יהושע {Jeshua}  Messiah, who is blessed forever, knows that I am not lying. ” (2 Corinthians 11:15-31 The Scriptures 1998+)

The apostle Paul was not the only who had to suffer, though he followed Christ and lived according to the Law of God. But he was not afraid for those humans who mad his life less easy and less pleasant. He at that time knew why he was being troubled. But he knew also the country had to encounter many problems, not because they got lesser Christian beliefs followed. He also knew that it was not because they ordered God out of their schools, because in many regions school and religion were separated. Theological teachings were considered a matter of the religious teachers like the rabbi. They had to take care of the right teaching for their community in the temples.  The religions had their own temples were worship was done and were people learned more about that religion.  Though there were many gods praised and many more temples we do have today in the communities, there were also the military and public conversations at many places, the hell did not break loose.

Reaping

In a column in One News Now, the conservative evangelical spokesperson Jerry Newcombe wrote that the shooting in Aurora was evidence that “we’re reaping what we’ve been sowing as a society,” explaining, “Lawsuit after lawsuit, often by misguided ‘civil libertarians,’ have chased away any fear of God in the land.”

Congressman Louie Gohmert (R-TX) attributed the shooting to atheism and attacks on Christians. But today we are not more attacked than in previous centuries. And for sure the psychological ill person did not attack Christianity. It is wrong to always say everything is the fault because Christianity is under attack and it is not willing to defend itself.

Going through or in Hell

It is also strange that those American evangelicals often would not find it bad that people who did something against them would go to a place of torture. You can find a lot who love that idea of hell and even say that it is because so many do not believe in heel that we do have so many problems. For them it is not so bad that a Christian dies early, if a Christian dies young, it seems tragic they agree, but really it is not tragic because they are going to a wonderful place they say. But they also say that, on the other hand, if a person doesn’t know Jesus Christ… “if they knowingly rejected Jesus Christ, then, basically, they are going to a terrible place.” They would like to have everybody getting the fear for that place, so that the world can be saved.

File:Botticelli ChartOfDantesHell.jpg

Chart of Hell ca. 1480–1495, pen and ink on parchment, after Dante’s Divine Comedy. – Sandro Botticelli (1445-1515)

First of all, the word used for that place of which they are so afraid, is “sheol” or “hades” which means the  “grave“, the place were everybody gets into when he dies. By certain people the dead are burned, by others they are cremated, in other cultures they are put in holes or in caves or mausoleums. Being put in the grave, is only been done when a person did pass away.  After Jesus died, he also was put in the grave and was for three days in sheol or the hell, the place of which he warned to be aware of because  there the fire would not be quenched. That fire which could be considered to be a literal fire, because at that time the people who died were brought out of the town to be burned on that hill ‘sheol’. But in Mark 9:48 the same verse says it is “where their worm does not die”. It is most unlikely that this means everlasting fires and immortal worms, and much more likely that it is a figurative expression describing the destruction that occurs in a rubbish tip.

In the Holy Scriptures is clearly written that Death is the penalty for our sins, we when we die we have paid for our sins, and God is not giving us an extra charge, having us place in a purgatory or in a hell for eternal torture. Having a feeling after death would also be against other writings in the Old Testament were is clearly indicated that the living can feel certain things but that those who died can not take anything with them or can not feel anything.

“For the living know that they shall die, but the dead know naught, nor do they have any more reward, for their remembrance is forgotten. Also their love, and their hatred, and their envy have now perished; and they no longer have a share in all that is done under the sun. ” (Ecclesiastes 9:5-6 The Scriptures 1998+)
“Do not put your trust in princes, In a son of man, in whom is no deliverance. His spirit goes out, he returns to his earth; In that day his plans perish. Blessed is he who has the of Yafor his help, Whose expectancy is in יהוה  {Jehovah} his Elohim, Maker of the heavens and earth, The sea and all that is in them, Who is guarding truth forever, ” (Psalms 146:3-6 The Scriptures 1998+)

““See, all beings are Mine, the being of the father as well as the being of the son is Mine. The being that is sinning shall die. “But if a man is righteous and shall do right-ruling and righteousness, if he has not eaten on the mountains, nor lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Yisra’nor defiled his neighbour’s wife, nor comes near a woman during her uncleanness, if he does not oppress anyone, does return to the debtor his pledge, does not commit robbery, does give his bread to the hungry and covers the naked with a garment, if he does not lend on interest or take increase, turns back his hand from unrighteousness, executes right-ruling in truth between man and man, if he walks in My laws, and he has guarded My right-rulings in truth – he is righteous, he shall certainly live!” declares the Master יהוה {Jehovah}. ” (Ezekiel 18:4-9 The Scriptures 1998+)

Which commandments following or ending up in hell

In the modern world it is already for ages that people, like the Americans lend money and ask or pay interest, often oppress others, come close and go in bed with women in their period. Are all those, because they do not follow those saying of God, are going to end up in hell and being tortured for ever?

For sure they all will die, like we shall die and be cremated or put in a grave to be in sheol, which is translated by many Bible-versions as ‘hell’, but is the same place where Abraham, Jacob and other holy many were placed.

“And Yatore his garments, and put sackcloth on his waist, and mourned for his son many days. And all his sons and all his daughters arose to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted, and he said, “Now let me go down into the grave to my son in mourning.” So his father wept for him. ” (Genesis 37:34-35 The Scriptures 1998+)
““And it came to be that the beggar died, and was carried by the messengers to the bosom of AbAnd the rich man also died and was buried. “And while suffering tortures in the grave, having lifted up his eyes, he saw Abfar away, and Elin his bosom. “And crying out he said, ‘Father Abhave compassion on me, and send Elto dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am suffering in this flame.’ ” (Luke 16:22-24 The Scriptures 1998+) (Please do compare this translation with your version. In many versions sheol and hades are translated as hell, as the word for the ‘underwold’ “Tartarus”. Often, not to clash with certain teachings, different words are used, or they place the original Hebrew and Greek words untranslated to give the impression it is a proper name of a place and not a substantive.)

We can find the word γεννα (gehenna) 11 times in the Gospels, and the word αδης (hades)  10 times. By comparison, the word ουρανος (heaven) appears 141 times in the Gospels as “heaven” (the word actually shows up 153 times; 7 times translated “air,” 3 times translated “sky,” 1 time “side,” and 1 time “other”, NRSV).  We should be aware that in the days of Jesus they did have an other concept of the ‘burning place’ then the Christian world has taken over form the Dante understandings of the concept of “hell.”

In case there could be a real fire also this could be the fire bringing “the second death”, spoken of in the Bible, where the wicked will be destroyed after facing judgement. That is then  consistent teaching of scripture.

Sinners or opponents, fire and the lake

File:PSM V77 D615 Lake of fire of kilauea at night.png

Lake of fire of Kilauea at night (1910) – Popular Science Monthly Volume 77

Sinners are opponents of God. They shall receive their punishment. The lake of fire, spoken of in Revelation 20:10 could be a real fire, but we notice that in verse 14 of the same chapter Death and Hades are also to be thrown into that lake of fire. It is clear in this case that the fire symbolizes destruction.

“And they came up over the breadth of the earth and surrounded the camp of the set-apart ones and the beloved city. And fire came down from Elohim out of the heaven and consumed them. And the devil, who led them astray, was thrown into the lake of fire and sulphur where the beast and the false prophet are. And they shall be tortured day and night forever and ever. ” (Revelation 20:9-10 The Scriptures 1998+)
“And I saw a great white throne and Him who was sitting on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away, and no place was found for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, standing before the throne, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is the Book of Life. And the dead were judged from what was written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, and death and the grave gave up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each one according to his works. And the death and the grave were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death.{1} {Footnote: 1See 2:11, 20:6, 21:8}. And if anyone was not found written in the Book of Life, he was thrown into the lake of fire. ” (Revelation 20:11-15 The Scriptures 1998+)

Although fire is often used symbolically in this way, it is possible that God will literally use fire to destroy the wicked. For example, 2 Peter 3 contrasts destruction by water in the Flood with destruction by fire when Jesus returns:

“For they choose to have this hidden from them: that the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, by the Word of Elohim,{1}{Footnote: 1Heb. 11:3}. through which the world at that time was destroyed, being flooded with water. And the present heavens and the earth are treasured up by the same Word, being kept for fire, to a day of judgment and destruction of wicked men. ” (2 Peter 3:5-7 The Scriptures 1998+)

God’s judgement will be executed on those who rebel against him. It is not “souls” that are described as being tortured, but “dead bodies” as being burnt. In Old Testament times worshippers of foreign gods such as Baal and Moloch sacrificed their children in the Valley Of Hinnom just outside Jerusalem. The “hell” in Mar 9:47 is translated from the Greek word for the Valley of Hinnom. This refers to the fire which was continuously burning there in the first century, and was used to destroy rubbish and the bodies of executed criminals. The name of the Valley of Hinnom came to be despised.

This fire is not literal. Nor are the worms literal; even those people who believe in the doctrine of the immortal soul do not believe in the doctrine of the immortal worm.

Loving and fearing

We should not have hell being a reason to fear God nor to keep His commandments. We should be loving all the people around us, believers and non believers, and wishing the best for them all. Because we know that God is the best teacher and Guide to give us all the tools to make the best of our lives,  we should recognise His Gracious Love and for to this end we should labour and strive, because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of them that believe.

Lets us remind Samuel, fearing God, not fearing human people:

““יהוה  {Jehovah} rewarded me according to my righteousness; According to the cleanness of my hands He repaid me. “For I have guarded the ways of יהוה , And have not acted wrongly against my Elohim. “For all His right-rulings are before me; As for His laws, I do not turn from them. “And I am perfect before Him, And I guard myself from my crookedness. “And יהוה  repays me according to my righteousness, According to my cleanness before His eyes. “With the kind You show Yourself kind, With the perfect one You show Yourself perfect, “With the clean You show Yourself clean, And with the crooked You show Yourself twisted. “For You save the humble people, But Your eyes are on the haughty to bring them low. “For You are my lamp, O יהוה , And יהוה  makes my darkness light. “For with You I run against a band, With my Elohim I leap over a wall. “The – His way is perfect; The Word of יהוה  is proven; He is a shield to all who take refuge in Him. “For who is besides יהוה ? And who is a rock, besides our Elohim? “is my mighty stronghold, And He makes my way perfect, “Making my feet like the feet of deer, And sets me on my high places, “Teaching my hands for battle, So that my arms bend a bow of bronze. “And You give me the shield of Your deliverance, And Your lowliness makes me great. “You enlarge my step under me, So that my feet shall not slip. “I pursue my enemies and destroy them, And I do not turn back till they are destroyed. “And I destroy them and crush them, So that they do not rise, And fall under my feet. “And You gird me with strength for battle, You cause my adversaries to bow under me. “And You make my enemies turn their backs, Those hating me, and I cut them off. “They look but there is no saviour, Unto יהוה , but He shall not answer them. “And I beat them as dust of the earth, I beat them small as dirt in the streets – I spread them out. “And You deliver me from the strivings of my people, You safeguard me as the head of the nations; A people I have not known serve me. ” (2 Samuel 22:21-44 The Scriptures 1998+)
“For You are not an taking delight in wrong, Nor does evil dwell with You. The boasters do not stand before Your eyes; You hate all workers of wickedness. You destroy those speaking falsehood; יהוה  {Jehovah} loathes a man of blood and deceit. But I, I enter Your house In the greatness of Your kindness; I bow myself toward Your set-apart Hin Your fear. O יהוה  {Jehovah}, lead me in Your righteousness because of those watching me; Make Your way straight before my face. For there is no stability in their mouth; Their inward part is destruction; Their throat is an open grave; They flatter with their tongue. Declare them guilty, O Elohim! Let them fall by their own counsels; Thrust them away for their many transgressions, Because they have rebelled against You. But let all who take refuge in You rejoice; Let them ever shout for joy, because You shelter them; And let those who love Your Name exult in You. For You bless the righteous, O יהוה  {Jehovah}; You surround him with favour as with a shield. ” (Psalms 5:4-12 The Scriptures 1998+)

Loosing

File:Ahmici massacre.jpg

UN Peace keepers collecting bodies from Ahmići, Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 1993 – ICTY April 1993

The American Family Association’s Fred Jackson said concerning the Aurora shooting: “Whether it’s the Hollywood movies, whether it’s what we see on the Internet, whether it’s liberal bias in the media, whether it’s our politicians changing public policy, I think all of those somehow have fit together—and I have to say also churches who are leaving the authority of Scripture and losing their fear of God” are what “give us these kinds of incidents.” How does it come that in countries who are less evangelical or less Christian as their country there does not come up one incident were people do have to question the values of their population?

Fear and the matter of protection has been in every community. In the U.S.A. some choose to debate about gun control or the state of healthcare for the mentally ill, other stalwart truthseekers have made it their mission to get to the bottom of James Holmes’ massacre at a midnight showing of The Dark Knight Rises, willing to come to the core of the wrong goings in their living community. Conspiracy theories are made up for the cause to get their priorities. “Inconsistencies” easily attributed to psychosis or misreported facts, several authors find it a more reasonable explanation that this was all government coercion.

People should question in which way a person can be brainwashed or can made to act in a certain way. They should know that you have the parents, the teachers, the religious teachers or atheist teachers, the playground caretakers, sports educators, and all the friends and acquaintances a person has contact with which shall form him or her. The background a person gets shall be part of his formation.

Many times in history there have been people who wanted to take the law in their own hands. Several times in history we saw individuals or groups taking justice into their own hands.

There have been sound and well balanced people but also not level-headed persons or lunatics who either wanted to change the world, who more often wanted to make their point clear to the community.

Protecting the community

The community shall only be able to protect itself, when it has a proper eye on what is happening in her community and sees how everything is evolving. They also should know that examples in a community and social pressure are important matters which can influence a lot of persons and have their repercussions on the whole group.

We shall not deny that when more people would live according to the Law of God we shall have lesser problems. But we always shall have to be realistic, knowing that not all people shall think the same way or believe in the same things.

In the fear of God we can and should try to get others believe in the Natural Laws and natural ethics and show them or prove to them that following the Law of God can give better results in live for all. To get credibility by others, we in the first place have to show that we are trustworthy. Acting from religious conviction has to proof that the right values are chosen for and that for a Christian the love for every one is shown.

Living according rules of Freedom

When one demands freedom that shall have to include freedom of religious belief and practice as well. By many Christians we can only see that there is a lot of hatred between the denominations and many of them accuse one or the other of things which they do not want to see by them. When they who say to be followers of Christ do want to arm themselves, and do not trust God in protecting them, how can others believe in their God, when his people do not show this love they should have according to the son of that God.

As real Christians we should go for the Love and should be careful in our choices, whom we want to elect and want to allow to present certain civil laws. When we can avoid that certain civil laws, which would not be in accordance with God Laws, be voted, we can contribute ourselves to this worldly system. As long as Jesus did not return we shall have to make do.

By living according the Law of God and educating our beloved in this Law we shall be able to form a generation and group of people who shall be able to protect themselves by living according to these divine rules and by giving good examples.

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Previous:

To be continued:
Condemnation of the World  and Illustration of Justification

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  1. Facing disaster fatigue
  2. Christian values and voting not just a game
  3. Mormons, just an other faith
  4. Uncertainty, shame and no time for vacillation
  5. Economics and Degradation
  6. Depression Economics and Paul Krugman
  7. Democratic downfall
  8. Capitalism downfall
  9. Men as God
  10. “solutions” to our problems
  11. The LORD protects those of childlike faith
  12. The great and holy God will not be unfaithful
  13. People don’t hunt out “loopholes” when they are seeking to love God and neighbours
  14. God demonstrates his own love
  15. Trust God to shelter, safety and security
  16. God my fence, my hope for the future
  17. God is my refuge and my fortress in Him I will trust
  18. Gaining Christ, trusting Jehovah + Gain Christ, trusting Jehovah
  19. It is not try but trust
  20. Hell = Sheol = Grave, tomb, sepulchre – graf, begraafplaats, rustplaats, sepulcrum
  21. What happens when we die?
  22. Jesus three days in hell
  23. Jesus and the fallen angels in hell
  24. Fallen Angels, Messengers of God gone astray
  25. dead and after
  26. hellfire
  27. Satan or the devil
  28. Sheol or the grave
  29. soul
  30. Gain Christ, trusting Jehovah

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Background:

  1. Here Are the Most Insane Aurora Shooting Conspiracy Theories
  2. The 6 Most Offensive Things Said in the Wake of the Aurora Shooting
  3. Evangelical Leaders Blame Liberals, Media For Aurora Shootings, Say Only Christian Victims Will Go To Heaven

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  • All trust, no fear (layeredhearts.wordpress.com)
    this is how God loves us. He sees the big waves coming, and sometimes they do crash over us and that’s when He holds us tightly so we don’t drown. But then there are times when He lifts us up so we are above the circumstance. I want to learn to trust in God’s love and protection, so I have no fear, like my son trusts me.
  • Use Godly Power or Die Forever Broke! (muponisi.wordpress.com)
    With godly power, for example, we can choose to become rich, and it would happen. The godly power is for us to do any positive thing, while we are still on earth to make our living better. We must claim all things, which God has granted us through His power.
    +
    Fear connotes inability to do something about a situation because one is afraid of repercussions from either the known or unknown. Yet, cautiousness denotes the notion that one is aware of shortcomings, and is avoiding possible dangers surrounding a given situation. There is a very thin line between fear and cautiousness. It is very possible to glide from cautiousness into fear without knowing.
  • Living the Surrendered Life (Day 20) (christlikeministriesnwa.wordpress.com)
    I make mistakes on a daily basis.  I have times where I doubt God.  I have times where I disobey God.  I am always making mistakes.  I’m always missing God…and I have a lot of me that still gets in God’s way.  So…if that disappoints you…I am sorry…but I’m not perfect…and never will claim to be.
  • August 5 (newstrength.wordpress.com)
    Do you feel like you’re a target sometimes, too? It’s mentally and physically exhausting to be a target. Do you sometimes feel like you’re running out of strength? Does it sometimes seem like the enemy is closing in on you and there’s no where to turn?When it’s clear that someone is out to get you—you need strength, and you need a shield.When you trust in the Lord with all your heart, He will become your strength and shield in every area of your life. But having complete support and protection comes from truly making God Lord of your life.
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    We all need to get better at trusting and praising instead of fussing and fearing. When we trust and praise—God’s power is magnified in our behalf. When you step on the accelerator of a gasoline powered car—it goes faster. When we choose to trust and praise, it’s like ‘stepping on the gas’. When we are all caught up with fussing and fearing—it’s like sitting still, or going in reverse. Fussing and fearing turns off the power of God.
  • Home Invasion…….divine Protection…….attacked by Fear……peace (unwalled.wordpress.com)

    daring stealthy home invasion

    failed attempt at burglary
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    attacked by tormenting fear

    active focus on God and His Word

    relaxing and sleeping again in delightful peace
    +
    I thank you for your promise that no weapon formed against us shall prosper and I trust you to continue to keep us safe and in perfect peace. I present the person(s) who invaded our home to you.

  • Massacres in Aleppo, Syria (EndtheLie.com)
    “Responsibility to Protect” crumbles as Western-armed terror front slaughters civilians while foreign sponsors attempt to tie hands of Syrian security forces.

    +
    With the Western press freely admitting that their “freedom fighting” FSA is lining up “suspected government supporters” and machine gunning them en mass, it seems the massacre the West feared would unfold in Aleppohas come to pass – only it wasn’t perpetrated by the Syrian government or its security forces, but rather by NATO and the Gulf State’s very own armed and coddled FSA terrorists.
  • Hang Ten (hodgepodge4thesoul.wordpress.com)
    Sometimes it seems that the waves are crashing all around, and you keep getting pulled under.  And just when you raise your head above water, here comes another set knocking you around.  It’s at those moments I’ve learnded to be still, relax, grab my board, and just ride it.
  • Fear (alifegivingmoment.wordpress.com)
    I’m afraid of — snakes, spiders, some loud noises — but do I tell her the real things I’m afraid of?  Things like …–almost every time I see a funny place on my skin I’m certain I have skin cancer that will surely end in death or …
    +I couldn’t look this little girl in the eyes and say, “It’ll be okay, honey!  When you grow up you won’t be afraid of things anymore. ”   I didn’t have any pat answer to give her to take all of those fears away but I could tell her that I’m afraid sometimes too and at least let her know she wasn’t alone in that battle.
  • Le’Andria Johnson: Sooner or Later (rhachellenicol.com)
    it was easier for me to run from God and hide my face than to ask for forgiveness and continue to move forward with the plans that God had for my life.  Just like Adam and Eve did in the Garden of Eden, it is easier to run and hide than it is to stand.  I ran from the very protection and covering that I had in my life.
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    We have to be careful of the judgement that we put off on people.  We do not know the relationship that she has with the Lord.  The enemy will use the very aspect of your life that causes you to live in shame and fear to keep you from fulfilling the purpose that God has for your life.
  • Paradise, the First Sin, the Fiery Sword, and the Path to Rectification (alaskawildgirl.wordpress.com)
    Fear of punishment is how the minion mind is controlled.
    Anger is punishment itself, and minions live in a world of suffering which arises from their own uncontrolled, violent anger, passions, and poisons of the mind.
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    We must walk past the burning sword to reenter the garden they say. That sword is the Word, holy books, dharma, or even the fire of torment and punishment, i.e. those things which remove attachments. We must allow wisdom or karma to cut away all remnants of wanting so that we can experience true happiness. It’s not about acting upon things or living beings and expecting results, rather acting upon the self, removing judgment and fear of punishment and all other forms of fear in order to know ourselves as not just things of clay that are born and die, but beings of love that go beyond time and space.
  • To Tell the Truth (stefanicarmichael.wordpress.com)
    perpetual lack of honesty tells something seriously askew with your child’s relationship to God. It shows your child is not truly trusting God enough to obey His commands. It could be that he fears the consequences of telling the truth more than he fears God.
    +
    Was the child afraid of what you would do rather than fearing the Lord? You might need to point him to God’s goodness and faithfulness to encourage him to trust God more deeply. Was the child lying to make himself look better to someone else? Maybe you need to help him understand that God’s perfect design in creating your child that is marred only by sin (and lying is a sin). He needs to see himself through the eyes of God and not his peers.
    +
    Whatever the situation is, you need to fight your child’s lies with God’s truth. Help them see clearly.
  • Tree of Life and Tree of Knowledge (theharvestprinciple.wordpress.com)
    What really happened in the Garden of Eden? Was it simply a sin, or a horrendous mistake? Adam and Eve lived in the Garden in a spiritual relationship with God. In order to live in the spirit a person’s own will had to choose to deactivate and to live through God’s will or spirit.
  • Julian Assange is right to fear US prosecution (guardian.co.uk)
    As the drama unfolds over Julian Assange’s bid for political asylum in Ecuador, a troubling irony has emerged: the besieged founder of WikiLeaks is seeking refuge in this small Andean nation because he fears persecution from the United States, a nation whose laws famously grant asylum to people in precisely Assange’s situation.
    +
    The US claims to lead the world in freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and the role these play as the foundations of democratic government. These freedoms do not die when governments feel threatened or are embarrassed by the publication of information. As Justices Stewart and White famously said, “the only effective restraint upon executive policy and power in the areas of national defence and international affairs may lie in an enlightened citizenry – in an informed and critical public opinion which alone can here protect the values of democratic government”.Indeed, it is precisely those who challenge the powerful, including government, who most require the protection afforded by fundamental free speech rights. If our current administration chooses to abandon them, it may fall to Ecuador to uphold the best of American principles.
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Another way looking at a language #3 Abraham

Posted on November 17, 2011. Filed under: Bible Study and Bible Reading, Holy Scriptures, Life and Death, Satan and Evil | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , |

Another way looking at a language

8. Proverbs and verbatim

As today in Dutch (About this sound Nederlands), and probably also in other languages as in English, we can find a lot of words which got a totally different or new extra meaning, so it happened in the early centuries of our Contemporary Timetable as well. Though many expressions we find in our day to day speech came originally from the Biblical times and can be found in the Bible books.

“Hij staat goed aangeschreven” or “to be in a person’s good books” can for example been tracked to Exodus 32:32 and “Zie niet aan, wat voor ogen is” to 1 Samuel 16:7 “for man looketh on the outward appearance, but Jehovah looketh on the heart.” or “zonder aanziens” “without fear or favour” from Romans 2:11, Deuteronomy 10:17 and Matthew 22:16: “For there is no acceptance of faces with God,” (Romans 2:11 YLT); “For Jehovah your God, he is God of gods, and Lord of lords, the great God, the mighty, and the terrible, who regardeth not persons, nor taketh reward.” (Deuteronomy 10:17 ASV); “… for thou regardest not the person of men.” (Matthew 22:16 ASV).

North door of iconostasis v.1

North door of iconostasis. Icon of Paradise: Abraham's Bosom with the Good Thief entering to the left

“Hij zit op Abrahams schoot” literally meaning “he is sitting on Abrahams lap” or “Hij is van voor Abraham” literally translated “he is from Abrahams time”, though in normal language nobody is going to think he really was born before Abraham and is still living today, though with English speaking people we do find a lot of problems in their understanding of “I was before Abraham”. When we in Dutch say “she was born before Abraham” we do not mean the same as Jesus did, because today it means that she is an old fashioned person. But you can understand it would give problems if people from another language would go and take it literally, thinking that this woman existed before Abraham.

Also when we say “Hij of zij heeft Abraham gezien” or “he or she has seen Abraham” we do not mean that that person has actually met Abraham, seen or spoken to him, but we only indicate that that person has past half a century. The person is more than 50 years old but not thousands of years old.

9. Carried away into Abraham’s bosom

File:Meister des Codex Aureus Epternacensis 001.jpg

The Story of Lazarus and Dives. Lazarus and the rich man are shown during life in the top register, in the middle is Lazarus in the Bosom of Abraham, and at the bottom Dives is suffering in Hades. + The word in the Greek text for "bosom" is kolpos, meaning "lap" "bay" relating to the Second Temple period practice of reclining and eating meals in proximity to other guests, the closest of whom physically was said to lie on the bosom (chest) of the host. (See John 13:23 ) - Illuminated manuscript, Codex Aureus of Echternach, c. 1035-1040. (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg.)

In Dutch it is clear as in Yiddish and Hebrew that the person of the Aramaic or Greek writing in Luke 16:22-23 that the beggar El‘azar or Lazarus was not literally carried by angel-persons or ghosts: “And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels into (אברהם) Abraham’s bosom: and the rich man also died, and was buried. And in Hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.” (Luke 16:22-23 ASV) In the East it was common to lie down at the meal, at the table on “rustbanken” or couches or settees. Often the head of one person rested against the bosom or breast of the other. After a nice meal it was not uncommon as it is still done in several ‘hot’ countries to take a little nap after dinner. The beggar did not get “Lazarus” (from “Lazarus worden” = “becoming drunk”, had drank too much alcohol) but was carried away in his death to come into Abraham his arms, meaning in the safety of our forefather.
The rich man and Lazarus” passage is cited as a literal description of actual events (and not as a parable) Stress is often placed upon words “there was a certain rich man” to emphasize the historical character of the language used. But in Luke 16:1 the parable of the unjust steward commences with the same language. Must this parable be read literally? (Similar language is used in other parables—sees Luke 12:16) Jesus did not definitely call it a parable.

Religious bodies like the Church of Christ hold the view that disbelievers go to hell (left hand side of the divided state of Hades or Sheol ()) whereas idol worshippers go straight to the lake of fire. It should be pointed out that this view puts Abraham in the lake of fire and not in Hades since it is recorded that Abraham “was gathered unto his people” (Genesis 25:8) and his people were idol worshippers. (Joshua 24:2) Lazarus is the only character personally named in the parables of Jesus, implying that Lazarus must have been known to the audience. This parable of Jesus might have been uttered after he received news of the death of his friend, Lazarus. The parable was given at Pereae, east of the Jordan at Bethabara (where news of Lazarus’ death came to him, John 11:6 cf. John 10:40; 1:28). It was an easy day’s journey from Bethabara to Bethany. Lazarus was typical of all Jews of this day. They were deprived of even the most meagre crumbs of the bread of life from the rich man’s table. (i.e., High Priestly class, but Caiaphas in particular). However much Lazarus might patiently await the rich man’s (Caiaphas) condescension, the High Priest was incapable of dispensing even spiritual crumbs.” {The Lazarus class was like the Gentile dogs who hoped for crumbs from their Master’s table. (Matthew 15:27).}

The passage speaks about bodies not souls. e.g., eyes, bosom (vs.23) tip of finger and tongue (vs. 24). Souls are said to be immaterial (the material body being left in the grave), how then could Lazarus (if really a soul) be carried by angels? (vs.22). How could Lazarus go literally to Abraham’s bosom? Abraham (as now) was unquestionably dead and without his reward. (Hebrews 11:8, 13, 39, 40).

Lazarus dies and in the parable, the premature death of Caiaphas is made to follow. In Hades they meet but in situations reversed. Caiaphas requests Abraham (with whom he claimed privilege by virtue of ancestry, (Matthew 3:9)) to warn his five brothers. The five brothers are the five brothers-in-law of Caiaphas, the Sadduceean High Priest. Caiaphas was son-in-law of Annas who had been deposed by the Romans for openly resisting them. The request is refused on the grounds that they had not heard Moses and the Prophets (e.g. in their attitude to adultery and resurrection, Luke 16:18; 20:27–38) nor would they respond if one rose from the dead. The resurrection of Lazarus further incensed the Pharisees, chief priests and Caiaphas who feared their loss of power. (John. 11:47–57).

The parable condemns Caiaphas the chief Shepherd of Israel for his selfish irresponsibility in neglecting the spiritual and material needs of Jews in Israel. Lazarus represents this neglected class. The parable is a further indictment of the Sadducees (who denied the resurrection of the body and were about to reject the miraculous resurrection of Lazarus) in their disbelief of Moses and the prophets. The parable is presented in terms of the popular belief of the Pharisees about the death state.

Meister des Codex Aureus Epternacensis (detail)

Codex Aureus Epternacensis (Goldenes Evangeliar), Prunkhandschrift, Szene: Gleichnis vom reichen Prasser und vom armen Lazarus, Folio 78 recto, detail

{Sheol = synonym of “bor” (pit), “abaddon” and “shaḥat” (pit or destruction), and perhaps also of “tehom” (abyss) = and denotes a place of abandon, a place to leave someone behind or grave.}

10. Point of view

Gustave Dore Lazarus and the Rich Man

Print by Gustave Doré illustrating the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, from the Gospel of Luke (1891)

Every time we do read something in the Holy Scriptureswe do have to look from which point of view it was been written and to whom it was said with the understanding that those who listened should get the meaning from their point of view.

The same it is for having a Satan around, meaning a ‘devil‘, not indicating a monstrous figure from a place called hell, but a bad person or an opponent, adversary, enemy and sometimes also an avenger. Lots of Christians would say about one or another person that he or she is a Satan, but do still want to believe that there is a real Satan lurking around the corner, who could capture that person away and bring them to places to burn for eternally, while they sometimes really say to someone else ‘go to hell” and ” burn forever”. (Would you really think they mean that really that person has to be smoked and can be put in a non ending fire?)

Therefore it is important that we try to find out where “Abraham got the mustard” (from) “waar Abraham de mosterd heeft vandaan gehaald” which has no similar equivalent in English where they would say: “to know how many beans go to the dozen” or “…. make five”.

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Continues

Previous: Another way looking at a language #2 Meanings

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  • “Needer-lands” The life of a Canadian au pair in Aerdenhout Netherlands > “The closest English word you have is “cosy” but that only covers part of it.
    Instilled with a superiority complex, I was of the mindset that anything said in another language could be translated, with its full value intact, to English; being one of the “largest and more complex” languages of the world, how could it not accurately convey the meaning of the rather “primitive counterparts”? However, upon coming to the Netherlands, my outlook as changed substantially. Not only is the word’s largest dictionary the “Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal” (Dictionary of the Dutch Language), there are words in the Dutch language that [as far as I know] English lacks – descriptions of a complex situational/emotional/societal state by a sole descriptor. You could argue that these words can be effectively translated, however in my attempts I’ve found that nearly all the depth is lost in translation – the English words sound banal in comparison.
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    Gezellig:Google Translate tells you this means cosy – it can. I’m going to quote Wikipedia for this one, they’ve worded it so well!“A perfect example of untranslatability is seen in the Dutch language through the word gezellig, which does not have an English equivalent. Literally, it means cozy, quaint, or nice, but can also connote time spent with loved ones, seeing a friend after a long absence, or general togetherness.”

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Fragments from the Book of Job #5: chapters 32-37

Posted on June 21, 2011. Filed under: Bible Study and Bible Reading, Endtimes, Jehovah יהוה YHWH JHVH God Elohim Yahweh Jahweh, Satan and Evil, Suffering | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

We can imagine that people get scared when they hear certain preachers talking as the three friends of Job. As the wife of a Southern Baptist pastor writes in her blog that one pastor saying that all the troubles which befell Job were his fault because he spoke forth fear into his life. That alleviated some of her fears somewhat. Though we would recommend starting to read the full Book of Job it is true that you don’t hear much in church or otherwise about the book of Job other than a passing comment or reference here or there. Studying Job brings forward that there is much more than that character of a righteous man blamed to be unrighteous and being rightly penalised by God.

Last chapter we saw that Job succumbed to the same self pity we all succumb to at times.

Job-Blake

Job - Blake

When things are going good in their lives, rarely do people give God the credit for it, but as soon as trouble comes along, the first one to get the blame is God. Even worse, there are ministers out there telling people its O.K. to get angry with God.  (Stop Blaming God) There are also a lot of preachers trying to convince people that it is God who brings punishment to the wicked today. Many have to come out that came out of that false system of thinking. Job’s friends did not see that it was the accuser and adversary of God (satan) was trying to drive a wedge between God and His beloved. If Job proved to be righteous only because “it pays” then Satan (any adversary) wins his bet with God. As the friends certain pastors say rightly God is almighty and just. They also preach that because no human is entirely innocent in God’s eyes and therefore have to suffer as suffering, according to them, must be a retribution for some sin. It has come so bad that today we even find pastors who say certain violent action and bringing pain to others is justified because the others deserve it. (Antichrist and The Most Hated Family in America in crisis) These doom preachers are right when they say that the Holy God shows us, that He completely is in state to bring the destruction over this whole world  because of the sin.  The Bible tells us of this tremendous fact in Genesis 6:12-13 when God, looking on the earth, saw that it was evil: for the way of all flesh had become evil on the earth. And God said to Noah, The end of all flesh has come; the earth is full of their violent doings, and now I will put an end to them with the earth. “And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.” (Genesis 6:12-13 ASV) God brought the deluge over the earth, but that was the first and last turn that God would do that.  Lots of doom thinkers make people frightened. Often they try to get the people of their congregation in their ban with cursings to the outer world and with “If you had more faith”. We should recognise the false teachers at the words and actions they take.  Teachers or preachers their sayings we always do have to compare them with the Words of God which we can find in the Book of Books, the Bible. Compare where the Holy Scriptures disagrees. In a time when so many people are striving for an explanation of why their lives turn out a certain way, or why things (good or bad) happen to them, the expressions “it’s all part of God’s plan,” “everything happens for the best,” or “it just wasn’t meant to be,” and so on, have became a little tiresome. In “When Bad Things Happen to Good People,” perhaps Rabbi Harold S. Kushner can offer you a refreshing point of view that differs from those who think everything occurs on earth because God wants it that way, and at the same time provides a surprising comfort in the fact that events actually can, and do, take place for no reason at all. Rabbi Kushner tries to reconcile a common Judeo-Christian view of God and causality with a perspective of life that holds a place for randomness and happenstance. He tries to proof that things happen in life that God has nothing to do with, and there is a way to find peace in accepting this. Also for him as for us not everything that takes place in the world has a purpose or comes from God. God, in Kushner’s view, created the world and provides the foundation of moral principle. But according some thoughts God would not quite be in control of the world He created. He hopes for our good and He sympathizes, as it were, with us in our pain, but He is powerless to do anything about it according this Jewish writer. But the One who created is in control but allows people a lot of freedom. Aish.com, a division of Aish HaTorah, an apolitical network of Jewish educational centres in 35 branches on five continents remarks: “As to why a God Who had the power to create the entire universe in the first place would create one that He is powerless to control, Kushner basically shrugs his shoulders and contents himself with noting that the world is relatively good for most people most of the time. We might designate this theory as “randomness plus God.”” (Why Harold Kushner is wrong) Fro them Harold Kushner’s approach to suffering is profoundly un-Jewish and provides no solace to those in pain. Unable to understand why a good God would allow individuals to suffer, Kushner ends by neatly defining the question away. He cannot even conceive of the possibility of any understanding, and so concludes that we have no answers because there are no answers. But God has provided those who want to listen and who want to find insight and wisdom, the possibilities to find the answers in the Holy Scriptures. “By arguing that much of what happens is beyond God’s control, Kushner effectively severs the connection between God and the world and thereby empties physical existence of all meaning.” dixit Aish.

When bad things happen to good people who do you blame? What, if anything, keeps you from accepting painful situations or losses in your life?

A lot of people do not see that the Book of Job also gives a picture of who God is and of what He wants from us.  They also quote a lot from the friends their words but forget how in Job and Elihu’s replies we get a rectification and the solution to the whole problem in the answer of the Elohim, Jehovah God.

In chapters 29-31 of the Book of Job (Fragments from the Book of Job #4: chapters 27-31) Job also present us a picture of some of the commandments to which we better keep to live in conformity with the Will of God or Gods Law. Those Commandments of God or Mitzvah (Hebrew: מצוה‎ “commandment”, [mitsˈva], Biblical: Miṣwah; plural mitzvot [mitsˈvot]; Biblical: Miṣwoth from צוה ṣiwwah “command”) were brought to humankind through the ages that God ministered His People. In Judaism they refer to the 613 Mitzvot (Hebrew: תרי”ג מצוות‎: Taryag Mitzvot, “613 commandments”; Biblical Hebrew: Miṣwoth) or 613 commandments given in the Torah. Job brought some  statements and principles of law, ethics, and spiritual practice contained in the Torah or Five Books of Moses forwards to proof that he tried honestly to fullfill Gods wishes.

When the friendship of God was with Job, he argued, (Job 29:4) that the Almighty was yet with him. He had the idea that God had deserted him, like Jesus also asked God why He had abandoned him. Strangely Job does not see that God was all the time with him. No matter what happens, when we stay with God, He shall always stay around us. Though we do not hear Him, He shall keep an eye onto us. God is often seemingly hidden, but His silence, His deafness, His blindness is all part of His plan to strengthen our relationship with Him.  It can be hard when God does not reveal Himself in visible proofs. But it makes stronger faith. We have to be careful that we do not project our human limitation upon God so that we could better understand our problems. We have limits, but the Only One God has no limits as a spirit. “The God is Pneuma, and those worshipping Him must of necessity worship spiritually and in harmony with Truth.”” (John 4:24 MHM)
Sometimes we are too busy to attend to all the details in our life, but Jehovah God never loses track of the details.

Also the friendship in the community is being questioned. You can compare the situation of Job and his friends as to what you expect of your “brethren”. How do we react when something goes wrong with somebody of the ecclesia? And when one of the brothers or sisters is taken in any wrongdoing, how do you want to put such a one right in a spirit of love; keeping watch on yourself, for fear that you yourself may be tested. Are you also willing to take on yourselves one another’s troubles, and so keep the law of Christ. “Brothers, if anyone is overcome by some mistake those who are spiritual should gently and meekly readjust such a person. However, watch yourselves so you are never tempted. Continue to carry the heavy burdens of one another and in this manner fulfil Christ’s Law.” (Galatians 6:1-2 MHM)

Job had moments of doubt and we also can feel that we are standing alone in the turbulent storm. All the thorns from the problems can hurt us deep and cause anger against the others and worse, against God for His seeming abandonment in His hiddenness. But from the next chapters and other Books from the Old and New Testament we shall see that God does not turn a deaf ear and a blind eye. God does see and hear in the camps of the evil ones, and not only that, but He assures us that He is there in the middle of the evil. He does not forsake those sons and daughters of His as it seems, for He sets the joy before them, and will send an accompanying angel to bear them up in the extreme. He wants us to “Look up”, but if we are so deep in the pit in the evil camp with our eyes permanently cast down, alas we find, miraculously, and mercifully that He is there with us. He is not hidden, and He whispers, “Look up, look up for I am here with you”.  When Job refused to give up on God, despite the pleadings of all his accusers, he won the contest with them, and was privileged to see what he would have missed had he succumbed to their suggestions. How do you look up to God. Can you keep trusting God and have a positive perspective? What might you think in a similar situation? Where do you place God in your life and where was God for you when it hurt the most?

Job demanded an audience with God in which he was sure he would be vindicated. Enter Elihu on the scene who sets Job straight before the entrance of God himself. When Job finally gets his audience with God it doesn’t go like he planned at all. He comes away humbled and repentant for his selfish behaviour. He is accepted by God still however, which speaks to eternal security of the believer. His three friends are a different matter however. It says God’s anger burned toward them. (see Jot’s writing on Job)

Job, who consciously lived his life as if it were open before and in service to the God of heaven and earth and kept to the regulation of community,  (one of the Laws or Deuteronomic code) brought forwards all the good deeds he had done. We also have to do such good things.  Delivering or taking care of the poor and the fatherless (Job 31:16–23); giving widows heart to sing for joy; no stealing or coveting; putting on righteousness; helping the blind, the lame and the needy; even helping animals, providing them with food (Job 31:31) searching out causes; putting the unrighteous on their place; giving counsel or advice; not having looked at the elements of the earth to worship them (Job 31:24-28) because we have to abstain from any pagan worship and our worship of God must remain pure. Not erecting sacred stones or adoring the richness of the earth (gold, silver, money, wealth), not making for yourself an idol. Keeping to purity and respecting rules which regulate marriage.
We should try to get to know the regulations of the Most High, but just keeping to them because we are afraid He might harm us is not the good reason to hold vast to the commandments. God wants from us that we do come out of our own free will, and that we love Him for what He really is. It is not by the disasters in the world or the many problems on earth that the greatness of the Creator is shown.

Does not God and His son gave to those who came with a request? We all can use this earth in loan from the Creator but so we want to share of it with others? do some of us  not keep their property from him who would for a time make use of it. You have knowledge that it was said, “Have love for your neighbour, and hate for him who is against you”.  But Jesus said to us: “Have love for those who are against you, and make prayer for those who are cruel to you; So that you may be the sons of your Father in heaven; for his sun gives light to the evil and to the good, and he sends rain on the upright man and on the sinner. For if you have love for those who have love for you, what credit is it to you? do not the tax-farmers the same? And if you say, Good day, to your brothers only, what do you do more than others? do not even the Gentiles the same?” (Matthew 5:42-47 BBE). “Instead, all of you continue to show loving concern for your enemies. And continue doing good-continue lending money without expecting anything to be paid back. If you do your reward will be considerable, for you will become the Most High’s offspring, because He is kind to the ungrateful and wicked.” (Luke 6:35 MHM)
We should know that “Jehovah is good to all; And his tender mercies are over all his works.” (Psalms 145:9 ASV)

We can also notice that Job recited a blessing for each enjoyment, but also blessings and curses for those who keep and break the law (Deuteronomic code in Deuteronomy Chapters 12-26).
Job preferred to curse the day he was born rather than God.

If we read in between the lines we can see that it is with profound courage and compassion that sufferers survive the inhuman dignities placed upon them by captors, and torturers and they need to remember that it is easier to receive the pain and moan with it, than it is to be the source of the inhuman behaviour, for there is no escaping the human consciousness that makes inhumanity possible. So, in that sense, human captors or persecutors and torturers are always worse off than their prisoners, or those who they torment. In a way we can’t escape that not such liked events intrude with such force that we are compelled to deal with our faith in the context of what is taking place in our lives. Suffering is one such event. It challenges us to confront the ultimate questions of who we are and what is the significance of our lives. Suffering is a painful invitation to deepen our faith and make it a real part of our lives.

We also get the question of “what makes “happy“, “healthy”, “wealthy” and “wise“.

Now we have heard the speeches of Jobs friends and his replies. Does the hair-rising, mystical spiritual experience of Eliphaz sound reliable to you? (Job 4:12-16) Can we be righteous as against God and be blameless against our Maker?

When we hear what happens in some churches and see how preachers rage on television do you not question if “correct” theology (all the right words) and/or quoting just some phrases out of context can ever be “bad” theology?

Elihu said i am young and ye are very old

Today we listen to Elius or Elihu son of Barakel the Buzite who was young in years. He had kept silent all the time because the others were older and therefore he did not dare to speak up against them. He was fearful, not daring to tell them what he knew.  (Job 32:6). There is a great lesson for us all here. It is not necessarily the case that old age brings wisdom. Wisdom is a result of experience. We should not keep to our pride and think because we have a certain age we also would have the wisdom. If we want to listen to advice or hear wisdom we should look for a trustworthy man person, who has had many testings in his or her life and stuck to his or her faith throughout, rather than one who has reached a great age or got a lot of wealth. It is clear from this book that old age does not always bring wisdom and understanding, but in this latter part of the book we are brought to our senses by this younger man who has the answers and who is able to help Job see his life in perspective. Let us not ignore the potential for wisdom to come from our younger members. And the wisdom does not always come from the most popular nor from the most liked one. The wisdom does not always flatter. We must recognise that there are certain preachers who want to be popular and even get huge churches full of people, because they know how to present their “show”. they know exactly what the people want to hear and give it to them in such a way that the people are pleased to hear such talking. But Elihu made it clear that what he had to say would not be emotional, or spoken with prejudice. He would not flatter, nor would he show respect to persons. He knew that God would condemn those who did. Though he also could find his thoughts “darkened”, and that is also what we all have to be aware of, certain things we can know for sure, others not, in certain things we can have wisdom, in others not. At certain point we even can find some haughtiness in his speaking. With a certain arrogance he boast that he has so much to say he can’t keep him straight. (Job 32:  18-22) Do we notice a taste of a braggart? In case we know something more then an other we should be pleased that we can be blessed as such. Let us therefore always be humble enough and listen in first instance to the One and Only God Almighty.

Brenton Translation
1851 by Lancelot Brenton

Job Chapter 32

Job 32:1 And his three friends also ceased any longer to answer Job: for Job was righteous before them.
Job 32:2 Then Elius the son of Barachiel, the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram, of the country of Ausis, was angered: and he was very angry with Job, because he justified himself before the Lord.
Job 32:3 And he was also very angry with [his] three friends, because they were not able to return answers to Job, yet set him down for an ungodly man.
Job 32:4 But Elius had forborne to give an answer to Job, because they were older than he.
Job 32:5 And Elius saw that there was no answer in the mouth of the three men; and he was angered in his wrath.
Job 32:6 And Elius the Buzite the son of Barachiel answered and said, I am younger in age, and ye are elder, wherefore I kept silence, fearing to declare to you my own knowledge.
Job 32:7 And I said, It is not time that speaks, though in many years [men] know wisdom:
Job 32:8 but there is a spirit in mortals; and the inspiration of the Almighty is that which teaches.
Job 32:9 The long-lived are not wise [as such]; neither do the aged know judgment.
Job 32:10 Wherefore I said, Hear me, and I will tell you what I know.
Job 32:11 Hearken to my words; for I will speak in your hearing, until ye shall have tried [the matter] with words:
Job 32:12 and I shall understand as far as you; and, behold, there was no one of you that answered Job his words in argument,
Job 32:13 lest ye should say, We have found that we have added wisdom to the Lord.
Job 32:14 And ye have commissioned a man to speak such words.

Job 32:15 They were afraid, they answered no longer; they gave up their speaking.
Job 32:16 I waited, (for I had not spoken,) because they stood still, they answered not.

Job 32:17 And Elius continued, and said, I will again speak,
Job 32:18 for I am full of words, for the spirit of my belly destroys me.
Job 32:19 And my belly is as a skin of sweet wine, bound up [and] ready to burst; or as a brazier’s labouring bellows.
Job 32:20 I will speak, that I may open my lips and relieve myself.
Job 32:21 For truly I will not be awed because of man, nor indeed will I be confounded before a mortal.
Job 32:22 For I know not how to respect persons: and if otherwise, even the moths would eat me.

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Job 33:1 Howbeit hear, Job, my words, and hearken to my speech.
Job 33:2 For behold, I have opened my mouth, and my tongue has spoken.
Job 33:3 My heart [shall be found] pure by [my] words; and the understanding of my lips shall meditate purity.

Job 33:4 The Divine Spirit is that which formed me, and the breath of the Almighty that which teaches me.

Job 33:5 If thou canst, give me an answer: wait therefore; stand against me, and I [will stand] against thee.
Job 33:6 Thou art formed out of the clay as also I: we have been formed out of the same [substance].

Job 33:7 My fear shall not terrify thee, neither shall my hand be heavy upon thee.
Job 33:8 But thou hast said in mine ears, (I have heard the voice of thy words;) because thou sayest, I am pure, not having sinned;
Job 33:9 I am blameless, for I have not transgressed.
Job 33:10 Yet he has discovered a charge against me, and he has reckoned me as an adversary.
Job 33:11 And he has put my foot in the stocks, and has watched all my ways.
Job 33:12 For how sayest thou, I am righteous, yet he has not hearkened to me? for he that is above mortals is eternal.

Job 33:13 But thou sayest, Why has he not heard every word of my cause?
Job 33:14 For when the Lord speaks once, or a second time,
Job 33:15 [sending] a dream, or in the meditation of the night; (as when a dreadful alarm happens to fall upon men, in slumberings on the bed:)
Job 33:16 then opens he the understanding of men: he scares them with such fearful visions:
Job 33:17 to turn a man from unrighteousness, and he delivers his body from a fall.
Job 33:18 He spares also his soul from death, and [suffers] him not to fall in war.
Job 33:19 And again, he chastens him with sickness on his bed, and the multitude of his bones is benumbed.

Job 33:20 And he shall not be able to take any food, though his soul shall desire meat;
Job 33:21 until his flesh shall be consumed, and he shall shew his bones bare.

Job 33:22 His soul also draws nigh to death, and his life is in Hades (the grave).
Job 33:23 Though there should be a thousand messengers of death, not one of them shall wound him: if he should purpose in his heart to turn to the Lord, and declare to man his fault, and shew his folly;
Job 33:24 he will support him, that he should not perish, and will restore his body as [fresh] plaster upon a wall; and he will fill his bones with morrow.
Job 33:25 And he will make his flesh tender as that of a babe, and he will restore him among men in [his] full strength.
Job 33:26 And he shall pray to the Lord, and his prayer shall be accepted of him; he shall enter with a cheerful countenance, with a full expression [of praise]: for he will render to men [their] due.

Job 33:27 Even then a man shall blame himself, saying, What kind of things have I done? and he has not punished me according to the full amount of my sins.
Job 33:28 Deliver my soul, that it may not go to destruction, and my life shall see the light.

Job 33:29 Behold, all these things, the Mighty One works in a threefold manner with a man.
Job 33:30 And he has delivered my soul from death, that my life may praise him in the light.
Job 33:31 Hearken, Job, and hear me: be silent, and I will speak.
Job 33:32 If thou hast words, answer me: speak, for I desire thee to be justified.
Job 33:33 If not, do thou hear me: be silent, and I will teach thee.

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Job 34:1 And Elius continued, and said,
Job 34:2 Hear me, ye wise men; hearken, ye that have knowledge.
Job 34:3 For the ear tries words, and the mouth tastes meat.

Job 34:4 Let us choose judgment to ourselves: let us know amount ourselves what is right.
Job 34:5 For Job has said, I am righteous: the Lord has removed my judgment.
Job 34:6 And he has erred in my judgment: my wound is severe without unrighteousness [of mine].
Job 34:7 What man is as Job, drinking scorning like water?
Job 34:8 [saying], I have not sinned, nor committed ungodliness, nor had fellowship with workers of iniquity, to go with the ungodly.
Job 34:9 For thou shouldest not say, There shall be no visitation of a man, whereas [there is] a visitation on him from the Lord.

Job 34:10 Wherefore hear me, ye that are wise in heart: far be it from me to sin before the Lord, and to pervert righteousness before the almighty.
Job 34:11 Yea, he renders to a man accordingly as each of them does, and in a man’s path he will find him.
Job 34:12 And thinkest thou that the Lord will do wrong, or will the Almighty who made the earth wrest judgment?

Job 34:13 And who is he that made [the whole world] under heaven, and all things therein?
Job 34:14 For if he would confine, and restrain his spirit with himself;
Job 34:15 all flesh would die together, and every mortal would return to the earth, whence also he was formed.

Job 34:16 Take heed lest he rebuke [thee]: hear this, hearken to the voice of words.

Job 34:17 Behold then the one that hates iniquities, and that destroys the wicked, who is for ever just.
Job 34:18 [He is] ungodly that says to a king, Thou art a transgressor, [that says] to princes, O most ungodly one.
Job 34:19 [Such a one] as would not reverence the face of an honourable man, neither knows how to give honour to the great, so as that their persons should be respected.

Job 34:20 But it shall turn out vanity to them, to cry and beseech a man; for they dealt unlawfully, the poor being turned aside [from their right].
Job 34:21 For he surveys the works of men, and nothing of what they do has escaped him.
Job 34:22 Neither shall there be a place for the workers of iniquity to hide themselves.
Job 34:23 For he will not lay upon a man more [than right].
Job 34:24 For the Lord looks down upon all men, who comprehends unsearchable things, glorious also and excellent things without number.
Job 34:25 Who discovers their works, and will bring night about [upon them], and they shall be brought low.
Job 34:26 And he quite destroys the ungodly, for they are seen before him.
Job 34:27 Because they turned aside from the law of God, and did not regard his ordinances,
Job 34:28 so as to bring before him the cry of the needy; for he will hear the cry of the poor.

Job 34:29 And he will give quiet, and who will condemn? and he will hide his face, and who shall see him? whether [it be done] against a nation, or against a man also:
Job 34:30 causing a hypocrite to be king, because of the waywardness of the people.

Job 34:31 For [there is] one that says to the Mighty One, I have received [blessings]; I will not take a pledge:
Job 34:32 I will see apart from myself: do thou shew me if I have done unrighteousness; I will not do [so] any more.

Job 34:33 Will he take vengeance for it on thee, whereas thou wilt put [it] far [from thee]? for thou shalt choose, and not I; and what thou knowest, speak thou.
Job 34:34 Because the wise in heart shall say this, and a wise man listens to my word.
Job 34:35 But Job has not spoken with understanding, his words are not [uttered] with knowledge.
Job 34:36 Howbeit do thou learn, Job: no longer make answer as the foolish:
Job 34:37 that we add not to our sins: for iniquity will be reckoned against us, if [we] speak many words before the Lord.

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Job 35:1 And Elius resumed and said,
Job 35:2 What is this that thou thinkest to be according to right? who art thou that thou hast said, I am righteous before the Lord?
Job 35:3 I will answer thee, and thy three friends.

Job 35:4 Look up to the sky and see; and consider the clouds, how high [they are] above thee.
Job 35:5 If thou hast sinned, what wilt thou do?
Job 35:6 and if too thou hast transgressed much, what canst thou perform?
Job 35:7 And suppose thou art righteous, what wilt thou give him? or what shall he receive of thy hand?
Job 35:8 Thy ungodliness [may affect] a man who is like to thee; or thy righteousness a son of man.

Job 35:9 They that are oppressed of a multitude will be ready to cry out; they will call for help because of the arm of many.
Job 35:10 But none said, Where is God that made me, who appoints the night-watches;
Job 35:11 who makes me to differ from the four-footed beasts of the earth, and from the birds of the sky?
Job 35:12 There they shall cry, and none shall hearken, even because of the insolence of wicked men.
Job 35:13 For the Lord desires not to look on error, for he is the Almighty One.

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Job 36:1 And Elius further continued, and said,
Job 36:2 Wait form me yet a little while, that I may teach thee: for there is yet speech in me.
Job 36:3 Having fetched my knowledge from afar, and according to my works,
Job 36:4 I will speak just things truly, and thou shalt not unjustly receive unjust words.

Job 36:5 But know that the Lord will not cast off an innocent man: being mighty in strength of wisdom,
Job 36:6 he will not by any means save alive the ungodly: and he will grant the judgment of the poor.
Job 36:7 He will not turn away his eyes from the righteous, but [they shall be] with kings on the throne: and he will establish them in triumph, and they shall be exalted.
Job 36:8 But they that are bound in fetters shall be holden in cords of poverty.
Job 36:9 And he shall recount to them their works, and their transgressions, for such will act with violence.
Job 36:10 But he will hearken to the righteous: and he has said that they shall turn from unrighteousness.

Job 36:11 If they should hear and serve [him], they shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in honour.
Job 36:12 But he preserves not the ungodly; because they are not willing to know the Lord, and because when reproved they were disobedient.
Job 36:13 And the hypocrites in heart will array wrath [against themselves]; they will not cry, because he has bound them.
Job 36:14 Therefore let their soul die in youth, and their life be wounded by messengers [of death].
Job 36:15 Because they afflicted the weak and helpless: and he will vindicate the judgment of the meek.

Job 36:16 And he has also enticed thee out of the mouth of the enemy:
Job 36:17 [there is] a deep gulf [and] a rushing stream beneath it, and thy table came down full of fatness. Judgment shall not fail from the righteous;
Job 36:18 but there shall be wrath upon the ungodly, by reason of the ungodliness of the bribes which they received for iniquities.

Job 36:19 Let not [thy] mind willingly turn thee aside from the petition of the feeble that are in distress.
Job 36:20 And draw not forth all the mighty [men] by night, so that the people should go up instead of them.
Job 36:21 But take heed lest thou do that which is wrong: for of this thou has made choice because of poverty.

Job 36:22 Behold, the Mighty One shall prevail by his strength: for who is powerful as he is?
Job 36:23 And who is he that examines his works? or who can say, he has wrought injustice?
Job 36:24 Remember that his works are great [beyond] those which men have attempted.

Job 36:25 Every man has seen in himself, how many mortals are wounded.

Job 36:26 Behold, the Mighty One is great, and we shall not know [him]: the number of his years is even infinite.
Job 36:27 And the drops of rain are numbered by him, and shall be poured out in rain to form a cloud.
Job 36:28 The ancient [heavens] shall flow, and the clouds overshadow innumerable mortals: (36:28A) he has fixed a time to cattle, and they know the order of rest. (36:28B) [Yet] by all these things thy understanding is not astonished, neither is thy mind disturbed in [thy] body.

Job 36:29 And though one should understand the outspreadings of the clouds, [or] the measure of his tabernacle;
Job 36:30 behold he will stretch his bow against him, and he covers the bottom of the sea.
Job 36:31 For by them he will judge the nations: he will give food to him that has strength.
Job 36:32 He has hidden the light in [his] hands, and given charge concerning it to the interposing [cloud].
Job 36:33 The Lord will declare concerning this [to] his friend: [but there is] a portion also for unrighteousness.

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Job 37:1 At this also my heart is troubled, and moved out of its place.
Job 37:2 Hear thou a report by the anger of the Lord’s wrath, and a discourse shall come out of his mouth.

Job 37:3 His dominion is under the whole heaven, and his light is at the extremities of the earth.
Job 37:4 After him shall be a cry with a [loud] voice; he shall thunder with the voice of his excellency, yet he shall not cause men to pass away, for one shall hear his voice.
Job 37:5 The Mighty One shall thunder wonderfully with his voice: for he has done great things which we knew not;
Job 37:6 commanding the snow, Be thou upon the earth, and the stormy rain, and the storm of the showers of his might.
Job 37:7 He seals up the hand of every man, that every man may know his own weakness.
Job 37:8 And the wild beasts come in under the covert, and rest in [their] lair.
Job 37:9 Troubles come on out of the secret chambers, and cold from the mountain-tops.
Job 37:10 And from the breath of the Mighty One he will send frost; and he guides the water in whatever way he pleases.

Job 37:11 And [if] a cloud obscures [what is] precious [to him], his light will disperse the cloud.
Job 37:12 And he will carry round the encircling [clouds] by his governance, to [perform] their works: whatsoever he shall command them,
Job 37:13 this has been appointed by him on the earth, whether for correction, [or] for his land, or if he shall find him [an object] for mercy.

Job 37:14 Hearken to this, O Job: stand still, and be admonished of the power of the Lord.
Job 37:15 We know that god has disposed his works, having made light out of darkness.
Job 37:16 And he knows the divisions of the clouds, and the signal overthrows of the ungodly.

Job 37:17 But thy robe is warm, and there is quiet upon the land.
Job 37:18 Wilt thou establish with him [foundations] for the ancient [heavens? they are] strong as a molten mirror.
Job 37:19 Wherefore teach me, what shall we say to him? and let us cease from saying much.
Job 37:20 Have I a book or a scribe my me, that I may stand and put man to silence?

Job 37:21 But the light is not visible to all: it shines afar off in the heavens, as that which is from him in the clouds.
Job 37:22 From the [north] come the clouds shining like gold: in these great are the glory and honour of the Almighty;
Job 37:23 and we do not find another his equal in strength: [as for] him that judges justly, dost thou not think that he listens?
Job 37:24 Wherefore men shall fear him; and the wise also in heart shall fear him.

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Continues: Fragments from the Book of Job #6: chapters 38-42

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  • The Role And Character Of Elihu In The Book Of Job
    Perhaps no other biblical character has been characterized by scholars in such radically different ways as Elihu. Concerning wisdom, Elihu is described as either an “exceeding wise” man or a “buffoon”; concerning his motivation, he is seen as anything from a divinely-inspired “man of God”  to the “person assumed or adopted by Satan” to attack Job; concerning his contribution to the Book of Job, he is considered to be “irrelevant” or “integral.
    … many scholars believe that the Elihu speeches as we have them now were not part of the original Book of Job.
    reasons for rejecting the authenticity:

    • Elihu is mentioned nowhere in the Book of Job outside of his speeches in Job 32-37
    • the style of the Elihu speeches is different from the style used in the other parts of the book.
    • Job’s challenge in chapter 31 calls for God, not Elihu, to make an appearance.
    • Elihu’s speeches supposedly contribute nothing to the Book of Job. (but as you can read Elihu does have something significant to add)

    … many scholars reject these arguments as unconvincing and strongly believe the Elihu speeches to be an original part of Job.

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Fragments from the Book of Job #2: chapters 12-20

Posted on June 18, 2011. Filed under: Bible Study and Bible Reading, Jehovah יהוה YHWH JHVH God Elohim Yahweh Jahweh, Life and Death, Satan and Evil, Suffering | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Etymologically the name Job could be related to the Hebrew word for “enemy,” with reference to either Job’s attitude to God or his response to suffering. The name might also be a contracted form of “Where is my father?”

In Fragments from the Book of Job #1: chapters 1-12 we could find the blameless and upright man in character, blessed in family and possessions, whose life embodied the fear of God both for himself and on behalf of his family (1:1–5). But then the adversaries and Job’s three friends (Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite) who came to offer sympathy and comfort, were trying to put the wrong doings from Job at the cause of his problems. These friends represent an oversimplified “orthodoxy,” based on a misreading of the wisdom tradition to the effect that all troubles are punishments for wrongdoing. Their “comfort” consists largely of applying this message to Job, urging him to identify his sin and repent of it. In so doing, these friends serve as a mirror for all readers who might be inclined to say similar things to people in distress.

An early engraving by Blake for the Book of Job

An early engraving by Blake for the Book of Job

The book tries to to explain evil and placing the Universal deity that is omnibenevolent, omnipotent, and omniscient in it. Throughout the dialogue, Job tries to maintain that he is in the right while also arguing God’s character back to him in lament about why his righteousness and justice do not appear to be borne out in events on earth.

In the previous chapters a light is also shed on the wrong idea that there would be some after life. Job is aware that when we die it is finished and we become put in the ground not being able to do anything. We could look at death as Job describes it, namely as rest from the toil of life. ( Job 3:13–19) When we die we come into a state as if we sleep or as a hidden stillborn child, as infants who never see the light (Job 3:16). All cease from troubling, and there the weary can come at rest and be freed from each other and equal in the same position, to become dust.  For man, when he is dead, perishes, and consumes away, what becomes of him? So man after he is asleep rises not, he shall not wake till the heavens be no more, nor rise out of his sleep. (Job 14:10-12) Therefore Job longs at a certain moment to be cut off of all his problems. so that he could rest from his suffering, knowing that he had not denied God (6:10). Job found his life unbearable on account of the empty comfort offered by his friends (6:14–30) and what he describes as the continued watchfulness of God (7:11–21).

Eliphaz wonders if Mortal Man can  be in the Right before God. Jobs friends are arguing precisely that a righteous person can be in the right before God.

The friends assume that both Job’s circumstances and his response to them are indications that he is in the wrong before God and needs to acknowledge and repent of his sin. However, Job will insist not only that he is not guilty of some hidden iniquity but that it is God who ultimately has allowed and governed his circumstances. So he does not curse God’s name or accuse God of injustice but rather seeks an explanation or an account of his wrong doing.

Bildad wonders how it can be that when a man were blameless,  he could show himself to be right before the God of justice (see 9:2)? And if shame and disaster are the fate of the wicked, how is it that the wicked so often appear to prosper in relative safety (see 12:6; 21:7)?

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Coverdale Bible
1535 by Miles Coverdale

Job Chapter 12

Job 12:2 Then (no doute) ye are the men alone, and wysdome shal perish with you.
Job 12:3 But I haue vnderstodinge as well as ye, and am no lesse then ye. Yee who knoweth not these thinges?
Job 12:4 Thus he that calleth vpo God, and whom God heareth, is mocked of his neghboure: the godly & innocent man is laughed to scorne.
Job 12:5 Godlynesse is a light despysed in ye hertes of the rich, & is set for them to stomble vpon.
Job 12:6 The houses of robbers are in wealth and prosperite, & they that maliciously medle agaynst God, dwel without care: yee God geueth all thinges richely with his honde.

Matthew’s Bible
1549 by John Rogers

Job 12:6 The houses of robbers are in wealth & prosperite, and they that maliciously medle agaynst God, dwell without care: ye God geueth all thinges rychely with hys hande.

Job 12:13 Ye with God is wysdome and strength, it is he that hath councell and forknowlege.
Job 12:14 If he breake downe a thinge, who can set it vp agayne? If he shut a thing, who wyll open it?
Job 12:15 Beholde, yf he witholde the waters, they drye vp: Yf he let them go, they destroye the earth.
Job 12:16 With hym is strength and wysdome: he knoweth bothe the disceyuer & hym that is disceyued.
Job 12:17 He caryeth awaye the wyse men, as it were a spoyle, and bringeth the iudges out of their wyttes.
Job 12:18 He lowseth the gyrdle of kynges, and gyrdeth theyr loynes with a bonde.
Job 12:19 He ledeth awaye the Preastes in to captyuyte, and turneth the myghtye vpsyde downe.
Job 12:20 He taketh the verite from out of the mouth, & disapoynteth the aged of their wysdome.
Job 12:21 He poureth out confusyon vpon Princes, and comforteth them that haue bene oppressed.
Job 12:22 Loke what lyeth hyd in darcknesse, he declareth it openly: and the very shadowe of death bringet he to lyght.
Job 12:23 He bothe increaseth the people, and destroyeth them: He maketh them to multiplye and driueth them awaye.
Job 12:24 He chaungeth the herte of the Princes and Kynges of the earth and disapoynteth them: so that they go wandringe out of the waye,
Job 12:25 & grope in the darcke without light, stackeringe to and fro lyke droncken men.

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Brenton Translation
1851 by Lancelot Brenton

Job Chapters 13-20

Job 13:1 Behold, mine eye has seen these things, and mine ear has heard [them].
Job 13:2 And I know all that ye too know; and I have not less understanding than you.
Job 13:3 Nevertheless I will speak to the Lord, and I will reason before him, if he will.

Job 13:6 But hear ye the reasoning of my mouth, and attend to the judgment of my lips.
Job 13:7 Do ye not speak before the Lord, and utter deceit before him?
Job 13:8 Or will ye draw back? nay do, ye yourselves be judges.

Job 13:9 For [it were] well if he would thoroughly search you: for though doing all things [in your power] ye should attach yourselves to him,
Job 13:10 he will not reprove you at all the less: but if moreover ye should secretly respect persons,
Job 13:11 shall not his whirlpool sweep you round, and terror from him fall upon you?
Job 13:12 And your glorying shall prove in the end to you like ashes, and your body [like a body] of clay.

Job 13:15 Though the Mighty One should lay hand upon me, forasmuch as he has begun, verily I will speak, and plead before him.
Job 13:16 And this shall turn to me for salvation; for fraud shall have no entrance before him.

Job 13:17 Hear, hear ye my words, for I will declare in your hearing.
Job 13:18 Behold, I am near my judgment: I know that I shall appear evidently just.

Job 13:19 For who is he that shall plead with me, that I should now be silent, and expire?
Job 13:20 But grant me two things: then I will not hide myself from thy face.
Job 13:21 Withhold [thine] hand from me: and let not thy fear terrify me.
Job 13:22 Then shalt thou call, and I will hearken to thee: or thou shalt speak, and I will give thee an answer.
Job 13:23 How many are my sins and my transgressions? teach me what they are.
Job 13:24 Wherefore hidest thou thyself from me, and deemest me thine enemy?
Job 13:25 Wilt thou be startled [at me], as [at] a leaf shaken by the wind? or wilt thou set thyself against me as against grass borne upon the breeze?
Job 13:26 for thou hast written evil things against me, and thou hast compassed me with the sins of my youth.
Job 13:27 And thou hast placed my foot in the stocks; and thou hast watched all my works, and hast penetrated my heels.
Job 13:28 [I am as] that which waxes old like a bottle, or like a moth-eaten garment.

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Job 14:1 For a mortal born of a woman [is] short lived, and full of wrath.
Job 14:2 Or he falls like a flower that has bloomed; and he departs like a shadow, and cannot continue.
Job 14:3 Hast thou not taken account even of him, and caused him to enter into judgment before thee?
Job 14:4 For who shall be pure from uncleanness? not even one;
Job 14:5 if even his life should be [but] one day upon the earth: and his months are numbered by him: thou hast appointed [him] for a time, and he shall by no means exceed [it].

Job 14:6 Depart from him, that he may be quiet, and take pleasure in his life, [though] as a hireling.
Job 14:7 For there is hope for a tree, even if it should be cut down, [that] it shall blossom again, and its branch shall not fail.
Job 14:8 For though its root should grow old in the earth, and its stem die in the rock;
Job 14:9 it will blossom from the scent of water, and will produce a crop, as one newly planted.

Job 14:10 But a man that has died is utterly gone; and when a mortal has fallen, he is no more.
Job 14:11 For the sea wastes in [length of] time, and a river fails and is dried up.
Job 14:12 And man that has lain down [in death] shall certainly not rise again till the heaven be dissolved, and they shall not awake from their sleep.
Job 14:13 For oh that thou hadst kept me in the grave, and hadst hidden me until thy wrath should cease, and thou shouldest set me a time in which thou wouldest remember me!
Job 14:14 For if a man should die, shall he live [again], having accomplished the days of his life? I will wait till I exist again?
Job 14:15 Then shalt thou call, and I will hearken to thee: but do not thou reject the work of thine hands.

Job 14:16 But thou hast numbered my devices: and not one of my sins shall escape thee?
Job 14:17 An thou hast sealed up my transgressions in a bag, and marked if I have been guilty of any transgression unawares.
Job 14:18 And verily a mountain falling will utterly be destroyed, and a rock shall be worn out of its place.
Job 14:19 The waters wear the stones, and waters falling headlong [overflow] a heap of the earth: and thou destroyest the hope of man.
Job 14:20 Thou drivest him to an end, and he is gone: thou settest thy face against him, and sendest him away;
Job 14:21 and though his children be multiplied, he knows [it] not; and if they be few, he is not aware.
Job 14:22 But his flesh is in pain, and his soul mourns.

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Job 15:1 Then Eliphaz the Thaemanite answered and said,
Job 15:2 Will a wise man give for answer a [mere] breath of wisdom? and does he fill up the pain of his belly,
Job 15:3 reasoning with improper sayings, and with words wherein is no profit?
Job 15:4 Hast not thou moreover cast off fear, and accomplished such words before the Lord?
Job 15:5 Thou art guilty by the words of thy mouth, neither hast thou discerned the words of the mighty.
Job 15:6 Let thine own mouth, and not me, reprove thee: and thy lips shall testify against thee.

Job 15:7 What! art thou the first man that was born? or wert thou established before the hills?
Job 15:8 Or hast thou heard the ordinance of the Lord? or has God used thee as [his] counsellor? and has wisdom come [only] to thee?
Job 15:9 For what knowest thou, that, we know not? or what understandest thou, which we do not also?
Job 15:10 Truly among us [are] both the old and very aged man, more advanced in days than thy father.
Job 15:11 Thou hast been scourged for [but] few of thy sins: thou hast spoken haughtily [and] extravagantly.
Job 15:12 What has thine heart dared? or what have thine eyes [aimed at],
Job 15:13 that thou hast vented [thy] rage before the Lord, and delivered such words from [thy] mouth?

Job 15:14 For who, being a mortal, [is such] that he shall be blameless? or, [who that is] born of a woman, that he should be just?
Job 15:15 Forasmuch as he trusts not his saints; and the heaven is not pure before him.
Job 15:16 Alas then, abominable and unclean is man, drinking unrighteousness as a draught.
Job 15:17 But I will tell thee, hearken to me; I will tell thee now what I have seen;
Job 15:18 things wise men say, and their fathers have not hidden.
Job 15:19 To them alone the earth was given, and no stranger came upon them.

Job 15:20 All the life of the ungodly [is spent] in care, and the years granted to the oppressor are numbered.
Job 15:21 And his terror is in his ears: just when he seems to be at peace, his overthrow will come.
Job 15:22 Let him not trust that he shall return from darkness, for he has been already made over to the power of the sword.
Job 15:23 And he has been appointed to be food for vultures; and he knows within himself that he is doomed to be a carcass: and a dark day shall carry him away as with a whirlwind.
Job 15:24 Distress also and anguish shall come upon him: he shall fall as a captain in the first rank.
Job 15:25 For he has lifted his hands against the Lord, and he has hardened his neck against the Almighty Lord.
Job 15:26 And he has run against him with insolence, on the thickness of the back of his shield.
Job 15:27 For he has covered his face with his fat, and made layers of fat upon his thighs.
Job 15:28 And let him lodge in desolate cities, and enter into houses without inhabitant: and what they have prepared, others shall carry away.
Job 15:29 Neither shall he at all grow rich, nor shall his substance remain: he shall not cast a shadow upon the earth.
Job 15:30 Neither shall he in any wise escape the darkness: let the wind blast his blossom, and let his flower fall off.
Job 15:31 Let him not think that he shall endure; for his end shall be vanity.
Job 15:32 His harvest shall perish before the time, and his branch shall not flourish.
Job 15:33 And let him be gathered as the unripe grape before the time, and let him fall as the blossom of the olive.

Job 15:34 For death is the witness of an ungodly man, and fire shall burn the houses of them that receive gifts.
Job 15:35 And he shall conceive sorrows, and his end shall be vanity, and his belly shall bear deceit.

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Job 16:1 But Job answered and said,
Job 16:2 I have heard many such things: poor comforters are ye all.
Job 16:3 What! is there any reason in vain words? or what will hinder thee from answering?
Job 16:4 I also will speak as ye [do]: if indeed your soul were in my [soul’s] stead, (16:5) then would I insult you with words, and I would shake my head at you.
Job 16:5 (16:6) And would there were strength in my mouth, and I would not spare the movement of my lips.
Job 16:6 (16:7) For if I should speak, I shall not feel the pain of my wound: and if I should be silent, how shall I be wounded the less?

Job 16:7 (16:8) But now he has made me weary, and a worn-out fool; and thou hast laid hold of me.
Job 16:8 (16:9) My falsehood has become a testimony, and has risen up against me: it has confronted me to my face.
Job 16:9 (16:10) In his anger he has cast me down; he has gnashed his teeth upon me: the weapons of his robbers have fallen upon me.
Job 16:10 (16:11) He has attacked me with the keen glances of his eyes; with his sharp [spear] he has smitten me [down] upon my knees; and they have run upon me with one accord.
Job 16:11 (16:12) For the Lord has delivered me into the hands of unrighteous men, and thrown me upon the ungodly.
Job 16:12 (16:13) When I was at peace he distracted me: he took me by the hair of the head, and plucked it out: he set me up as a mark.

Job 16:13 (16:14) They surrounded me with spears, aiming at my reins: without sparing [me] they poured out my gall upon the ground.
Job 16:14 (16:15) They overthrew me with fall upon fall: they ran upon me in [their] might.
Job 16:15 (16:16) They sewed sackcloth upon my skin, and my strength has been spent on the ground.

Job 16:16 (16:17) My belly has been parched with wailing, and darkness is on my eyelids.
Job 16:17 (16:18) Yet there was no injustice in my hands, and my prayer is pure.
Job 16:18 (16:19) Earth, cover not over the blood of my flesh, and let my cry have no place.
Job 16:19 (16:20) And now, behold, my witness is in heaven, and my advocate is on high.
Job 16:20 (16:21) Let my supplication come to the Lord, and let mine eye weep before him.
Job 16:21 (16:22) Oh that a man might plead before the Lord, even [as] the son of man with his neighbor!
Job 16:22 (16:23) But my years are numbered and [their end] come, and I shall go by the way by which I shall not return.

+

Job 17:1 I perish, carried away by the wind, and I seek for burial, and obtain [it] not.
Job 17:2 Weary I intreat; and what have I done? and strangers have stolen my goods.

Job 17:3 Who is this? let him join hands with me.
Job 17:4 For thou hast hid their heart from wisdom; therefore thou shalt not exalt them.
Job 17:5 He shall promise mischief to [his] companions: but [their] eyes have failed for [their] children.

Job 17:6 But thou has made me a byword amount the nations, and I am become a scorn to them.
Job 17:7 For my eyes are dimmed through pain; I have been grievously beset by all.
Job 17:8 Wonder has seized true men upon this; and let the just rise up against the transgressor.

Job 17:9 But let the faithful hold on his own way, and let him that is pure of hands take courage.
Job 17:10 Howbeit, do ye all strengthen [yourselves] and come now, for I do not find truth in you.

Job 17:11 My days have passed in groaning, and my heart-strings are broken.
Job 17:12 I have turned the night into day: the light is short because of darkness.
Job 17:13 For if I remain, Hades is my habitation: and my bed has been made in darkness.
Job 17:14 I have called upon death to be my father, and corruption [to be] my mother and sister.
Job 17:15 Where then is yet my hope? or [where] shall I see my good?
Job 17:16 Will they go down with me to Hades, or shall we go down together to the tomb?

+

Job 18:1 Then Baldad the Sauchite answered and said,
Job 18:2 How long wilt thou continue? forbear, that we also may speak.
Job 18:3 For wherefore have we been silent before thee like brutes?
Job 18:4 Anger has possessed thee: for what if thou shouldest die; would [the earth] under heaven be desolate? or shall the mountains be overthrown from their foundations?
Job 18:5 But the light of the ungodly shall be quenched, and their flame shall not go up.
Job 18:6 His light [shall be] darkness in [his] habitation, and his lamp shall be put out with him.
Job 18:7 Let the meanest of men spoil his goods, and let his counsel deceive [him].
Job 18:8 His foot also has been caught in a snare, [and] let it be entangled in a net.
Job 18:9 And let snares come upon him: he shall strengthen those that thirst for his destruction.
Job 18:10 His snare is hid in the earth, and that which shall take him is by the path.
Job 18:11 Let pains destroy him round about, and let many [enemies] come about him,
Job 18:12 [vex him] with distressing hunger: and a signal destruction has been prepared for him.
Job 18:13 Let the soles of his feet be devoured: and death shall consume his beauty.

Job 18:14 And let health be utterly banished from his tabernacle, and let distress seize upon him with a charge from the king.
Job 18:15 It shall dwell in his tabernacle in his night: his excellency shall be sown with brimstone.

Job 18:16 His roots shall be dried up from beneath, and his crop shall fall away from above.
Job 18:17 Let his memorial perish out of the earth, and his name shall be publicly cast out.
Job 18:18 Let [one] drive him from light into darkness.
Job 18:19 He shall not be known among his people, nor his house preserved on the earth.
Job 18:20 But strangers shall dwell in his possessions: the last groaned for him, and wonder seized the first.
Job 18:21 These are the houses of the unrighteous, and this is the place of them that know not the Lord.

+

Job 19:1 Then Job answered and said,
Job 19:2 How long will ye vex my soul, and destroy me with words? only know that the Lord has dealt with me thus.
Job 19:3 Ye speak against me; ye do not feel for me, but bear hard upon me.

Job 19:4 Yea verily, I have erred in truth, (but the error abides with myself) (19:4A) in having spoken words which it was not right [to speak]; and my words err, and are unreasonable.

Job 19:5 But alas! for ye magnify yourselves against me, and insult me with reproach.

Job 19:6 Know then that it is the Lord that has troubled [me], and has raised his bulwark against me.

Job 19:7 Behold, I laugh at reproach; I will not speak: [or] I will cry out, but [there is] nowhere judgment.
Job 19:8 I am fenced round about, and can by no means escape: he has set darkness before my face.
Job 19:9 And he has stripped me of my glory, and has taken the crown from my head.
Job 19:10 He has torn me around about, and I am gone: and he has cut off my hope like a tree.
Job 19:11 And he has dreadfully handled me in anger, and has counted me for an enemy.
Job 19:12 His troops also came upon me with one accord, liars in wait compassed my ways.

Job 19:13 My brethren have stood aloof from me; they have recognized strangers [rather] than me: and my friends have become pitiless.
Job 19:14 My nearest of kin have not acknowledged me, and they that knew my name, have forgotten me.
Job 19:15 [As for] my household, and my maid-servants, I was a stranger before them.
Job 19:16 I called my servant, and he hearkened not; and my mouth intreated [him].
Job 19:17 And I besought my wife, and earnestly intreated the sons of my concubines.
Job 19:18 But they rejected me for ever; whenever I rise up, they speak against me.
Job 19:19 They that saw me abhorred me: the very persons whom I had loved, rose up against me.

Job 19:20 My flesh is corrupt under my skin, and my bones are held in [my] teeth.
Job 19:21 Pity me, pity me, O friends; for it is the hand of the Lord that has touched me.
Job 19:22 Wherefore do ye persecute me as also the Lord [does], and are not satisfied with my flesh?
Job 19:23 For oh that my words were written, and that they were recorded in a book forever,
Job 19:24 with an iron pen and lead, or graven in the rocks!

Job 19:25 For I know that he is eternal who is about to deliver me,
Job 19:26 [and] to raise up upon the earth my skin that endures these [sufferings]: for these things have been accomplished to me of the Lord;
Job 19:27 which I am conscious of in myself, which mine eye has seen, and not another, but all have been fulfilled to me in [my] bosom.

Job 19:28 But if ye shall also say, What shall we say before him, and [so] find the root of the matter in him?
Job 19:29 Do ye also beware of deceit: for wrath will come upon transgressors; and then shall they know where their substance is.

+

Job 20:1 Then Sophar the Minaean answered and said,
Job 20:2 I did not suppose that thou wouldest answer thus: neither do ye understand more than I.
Job 20:3 I will hear my shameful reproach; and the spirit of my understanding answers me.
Job 20:4 Hast thou [not] known these things of old, from the time that man was set upon the earth?
Job 20:5 But the mirth of the ungodly is a signal downfall, and the joy of transgressors is destruction:
Job 20:6 although his gifts should go up to heaven, and his sacrifice reach the clouds.
Job 20:7 For when he shall seem to be now established, then he shall utterly perish: and they that knew him shall say, Where is he?
Job 20:8 Like a dream that has fled away, he shall not be found; and he has fled like a vision of the night.
Job 20:9 The eye has looked upon him, but shall not [see him] again; and his place shall no longer perceive him.

Job 20:10 Let [his] inferiors destroy his children, and let his hands kindle the fire of sorrow.
Job 20:11 His bones have been filled with [vigour of] his youth, and it shall lie down with him in the dust.
Job 20:12 Though evil be sweet in his mouth, [though] he will hide it under his tongue;
Job 20:13 though he will not spare it, and will not leave it, but will keep it in the midst of his throat:
Job 20:14 yet he shall not at all be able to help himself; the gall of an asp is in his belly.
Job 20:15 [His] wealth unjustly collected shall be vomited up; a messenger [of] [wrath] shall drag him out of his house.
Job 20:16 And let him suck the poison of serpents, and let the serpent’s tongue slay him.
Job 20:17 Let him not see the milk of the pastures, nor the supplies of honey and butter.

Job 20:18 He has laboured unprofitably and in vain, [for] wealth of which he shall not taste: [it is] as a lean thing, unfit for food, which he cannot swallow.
Job 20:19 For he has broken down the houses of many mighty men: and he has plundered an habitation, though he built [it] not.

Job 20:20 There is no security to his possessions; he shall not be saved by his desire.
Job 20:21 There is nothing remaining of his provisions; therefore his goods shall not flourish.

Job 20:22 But when he shall seem to be just satisfied, he shall be straitened; and all distress shall come upon him.
Job 20:23 If by any means he would fill his belly, let [God] send upon him the fury of wrath; let him bring a torrent of pains upon him.
Job 20:24 And he shall by no means escape from the power of the sword; let the brazen bow wound him.
Job 20:25 And let the arrow pierce through his body; and let the stars be against his dwelling-place: let terrors come upon him.
Job 20:26 And let all darkness wait for him: a fire that burns not out shall consume him; and let a stranger plague his house.
Job 20:27 And let the heaven reveal his iniquities, and the earth rise up against him.
Job 20:28 Let destruction bring his house to an end; let a day of wrath come upon him.
Job 20:29 This is the portion of an ungodly man from the Lord, and the possession of his goods [appointed him] by the all-seeing [God].

***

° Hades, the underground, Sjeool/Sheol = the grave or the place of : break down, corrupt, decompose, disintegrate, fester, foul, mold, molder, perish, putrefy, rot, spoil, a place where Jesus also went for three days.

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