Titles of God beginning with the Aleph in Hebrew

Posted on June 13, 2012. Filed under: Jehovah יהוה YHWH JHVH God Elohim Yahweh Jahweh, Jesus Christ Jeshua the Messiah Jahushua | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

The first four letters of the Ashuri alphabet;...

The first four letters of the Ashuri alphabet; using the font DavkaStam. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In the Bible we can find the Name of God. In Hebrew indicated by יהוה which we can read best as ‘Jehovah‘. In some of our postings you shall be able to find יהוה  printed so that you can clearly notice the difference with the other important person in the Holy Scriptures:  יהושע Jehoshua or Jeshua, indicating that it is Jehovah who saves: Yeshu’ = Yeshua (Hebrew) or Jeshua (Germanic), who is better known under the name Jesus (meaning Hail to Zeus) (Find out more in The wrong hero)

The numerous titles for God have been a source of debate among biblical scholars

יהוה

YHWH [Yehowah (Hebrew) or Jehovah (Germanic)] is the only proper name of God in the Tanakh in the sense of a personal name.

For God The Almighty (El Shaddai) or Most High (Elyon) the Avinu or “our father”, several titles, highlighting different aspects of YHWH (Tzevaot) and the various roles of God, are also used of which some begin with the first letter of the alphabet, the letter Aleph, including the following:

  •  - El = mighty one
  • Elohim
  • – Eloha
  • – ehyeh asher ehyeh
  • Adonai = god, or authority, master
  • Adon Olam = “Eternal Lord” or “Lord of the Universe”
  • – Adir

Jeffrey Pierce writes: “Aleph literally represents “the beginning,” and The Awakening offers the first threads of the beginning of “the end.”  It is connected to acharit hayamim, or the “end of days” spoken of in Hebrew prophecy and it is Aleph (which has a numeric value of 1,000) that is used by Hebrew mystics to calculate that the end will come 6,000 years into that culture’s perspective of the present age.  While it can be viewed simply as a symbol on a page, Aleph is the first hint that there is more to the story than simply the novel itself.”

The two most frequently used designations for deity in the Hebrew Scriptures are: (“Elohim” for “God”-This is a plural word, and is also translated as “gods” in the TaNaK-see Exodus 20:3 for example) and ["YHVH" Yehovah (Hebrew) = Jehovah (Germanic)

Tetragrammaton in Old, modern Hebrew and Letterword yhwh-ani-tetragram

or often translated as Yahweh or Jahweh/Jahwe]. The singular form for the word “Elohim” is pronounced “el” and looks like this in Hebrew:

Note: The four-letter name for the God of Israel is YHWH (Hebrew יהוה ). It is the most important name of God in Judaism, and is used most often in the Hebrew scriptures. It is also known as the Tetragrammaton, a term from Greek τετραγράμματον, meaning “[a word] having four letters”.

Other common tittles:
  • Adir—”Strong One”
  • Adon Olam—”Master of the World”
  • Aibishter—”The Most High” (Yiddish)
  • Aleim—sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of Elohim
  • Avinu Malkeinu—”Our Father, our King”
  • Bore—”the Creator”
  • Ehiyeh sh’Ehiyeh—”I Am That I Am”: a modern Hebrew version of “Ehyeh asher Ehyeh”
  • Elohei Avraham, Elohei Yitzchak ve Elohei Ya`aqov—”God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob”
  • Elohei Sara, Elohei Rivka, Elohei Leah ve Elohei Rakhel—”God of Sarah, God of Rebecca, God of Leah, and God of Rachel”
  • El ha-Gibbor—”God the hero” or “God the strong one” or “God the warrior”
  • Emet—”Truth”
  • E’in Sof—”endless, infinite”, Kabbalistic name of God
  • HaKadosh, Barukh Hu (Hebrew); Kudsha, Brikh Hu (Aramaic)—”The Holy One, Blessed be He”
  • HaRachaman-”The Merciful One”
  • Kadosh Israel—”Holy One of Israel”
  • Melech HaMelachim—”The King of kings” or Melech Malchei HaMelachim “The King, King of kings”, to express superiority to the earthly rulers title.
  • Makom or HaMakom—literally “the place”, perhaps meaning “The Omnipresent”; see Tzimtzum
  • Magen Avraham—”Shield of Abraham”
  • Ribono shel `Olam—”Master of the World”
  • Ro’eh Yisra’el—”Shepherd of Israel”
  • Tzur Israel—”Rock of Israel
  • Uri Gol— “The new LORD for a new era” (Judges 5:14)
  • YHWH-Yireh (Adonai-jireh)—”The LORD will provide” (Genesis 22:13–14)
  • YHWH-Rapha—”The LORD that healeth” (Exodus 15:26)
  • YHWH-Niss”i (Adonai-Nissi)—”The LORD our Banner” (Exodus 17:8–15)
  • YHWH-Shalom—”The LORD our Peace” (Judges 6:24)
  • YHWH-Ro’i—”The LORD my Shepherd”
  • YHWH-Tsidkenu—”The LORD our Righteousness” (Jeremiah 23:6)
  • YHWH-Shammah (Adonai-shammah)—”The LORD is present” (Ezekiel 48:35)
File:Tetragrammaton-related-Masoretic-vowel-points.png

Tetragrammaton-related-Masoretic-vowel-point

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Please do find more Titles and Names used to indicate God the Most High:

Attributes to God, titles ascribed to Him or Names given to JHWH, the God of gods.

And read:

God of gods

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On Steppping toes you may also find:

  1. A god between many gods
  2. The wrong hero
  3. Creator of heaven and earth and everything aroundיהוה
  4. Does He exists?
  5. Some one or something to fear #5 Not afraid
  6. Some one or something to fear #6 Faith in the Most High
  7. Some one or something to fear #7 Not afraid for Gods Name

Do find as well:

  1. Lord or Yahuwah, Yeshua or Yahushua
  2. I Will Cause Your Name To Be Remembered
  3. Jehovah Yahweh Gods Name
  4. The Divine name of the Creator
  5. I am that I am Ehyeh-Asher-Ehyeh אהיה אשר אהיה
  6. Hashem השם, Hebrew for “the Name”
  7. Praise the God with His Name
  8. Archeological Findings the name of God YHWH
  9. Jeruzalem Gods city
  10. God is one
  11. The Trinity – the truth
  12. The Gospel: Faithful, Not Crazy
  13. The NIV and the Name of God
  14. Use of /Gebruik van Jehovah or/of Yahweh in Bible Translations/Bijbel vertalingen

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  • The importance of Reading the Scriptures (christadelphians.wordpress.com)
  • The Importance Of Scripture (christadelphians.wordpress.com)
  • Daily Tidbits 4/29 – 4 Elements (littleguyintheeye.wordpress.com)
    The numerical value of aleph is 1, as is the atomic number of hydrogen, strengthening our identification
    +
    “When we substitute modern elements for all four letters of God’s ancient name, we see a result that, at first blush, may be unexpected.  Replacing the final H in YHVH with its chemical equivalent of nitrogen, God’s name becomes the elements hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (HNON) – all colorless, odorless, and invisible gases!  In other words, replacing 100 percent of God’s personal name with the elements of this world creates a substance that is an intangible, yet very real form of creation!”
  • Let’s Get It Right: Psalm 8, NLT (psalmslife.com)
    The created world has a master, and that must be considered.
    +
    Looking at the Word as a prescription can be quite healthy.
  • The Bible Simplified….. (jesusisms.wordpress.com)
    the Truth is, the more you Keep On reading it, Keep On seeking its information, the more the above intimidating distractions, which satan uses to discourage you with, will disappear and the information comes out like a flaming torch of light.
  • The Sufficiency of Scripture (part one) (mindrenewers.com)
    This doctrine is the antidote to the man-exalting traditionalism of many mainline churches (Catholic and Protestant), the dangerous mysticism of modern ”pop” Christianity, the pseudo-authority of God-ignoring psychology, the famous-preacher-worship of much of evangelicalism, and the cancerous imperial minister syndrome that infects many independent churches (Baptists and others).
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    General Revelation in Psalm 19: Here, the name used for God is El, the shortened version of Elohim.  The emphasis is on God as the Mighty One, the One who is powerful and strong — and this is seen in His work of creation.  As Romans 1 says, ‘For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead.’  God’s power and divine nature can be seen in His creative work.
    +
    If Scripture can be trusted that ‘it does what it says on the package,’ we should take notice, because the package says it does quite a lot.
  • Who is God? (adifferenceforyourlovedones.wordpress.com)
    God is Jehovah=YHWH in the intimate relationship. Knowing God as Elohim is nice and wonderful , but very misleading …
    +
    On this earth we have only 3 dimension, 4 , if we consider the spiritual. Nobody knows how many facets of dimension God really has.People always ask me: “What is the name of your God?”
    God our creator’s character is flawless, too perfect for human description.
    God has many name, because His attributes rises to any need you possibly could have.
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    Here are some other names of God, by all means not a comprehensive list. I am not able to study any further, else this blog will never be published. Send me input of your research if you like.
    Jehovah Tsuri= The Lord my strength
    Jehovah Rophe= The Lord my healer
    Jehovah Shalom= The Lord our peace
    Jehovah Bore= The Lord our maker
    Jehovah Maginnenu=The Lord my defense
    Jehovah Jared= The Lord my provider
    Jehovah Roi= The Lord is my shepard
    Jehovah maize= The Lord my fortress
    El Nose’= A forgiving God
    El Simchath Gili= God my joy and my delight
    El Emunah= The faithful God
    This chapter can go on forever, because God is so awesome.
  • I AM…………………….The name of God and endless potential. (cancercuredmylife.wordpress.com)
    I Am that I Am (אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה, ʾehyeh ʾašer ʾehyeh [ʔehˈje ʔaˈʃer ʔehˈje]) is a common English translation (JPS among others) of the response God used in the Hebrew Bible whenMoses asked for his name (Exodus 3:14). It is one of the most famous verses in the Torah. Hayah means “existed” or “was” in Hebrew; “ehyeh” is the first person singular imperfect form and is usually translated in English Bibles as “I will be” (or “I shall be”), for example, at Exodus 3:12. Ehyeh asher ehyeh literally translates as “I Will Be What I Will Be”, with attendant theological and mystical implications in Jewish tradition. However, in most English Bibles, this phrase is rendered as I am that I am.”
    +
    Basically I spoke things that I desired as if they already existed.  All of these statement began with I AM.  I must have said, I am HEALTHY over a million times.  I was making statements outside of my present human experience.  I believe that in doing this I asked the divine to make them a reality in my present life…………..spoken in faith.
  • Radiate FROM God (revessie.com)
    God expects for us to live in Spiritual growth. We need to graduate from the milk of God’s Word to the meat of His Word. If one cannot keep up with the footmen how can he run with the horses?
    +
    Make room for God in your everyday living. He should be the neucleus of your life, not beside, on top, behind, nor under you. You radiate only because of Him.
  • How Factual is the Bible? (glimpsesofgeula.wordpress.com)
    “What I found is that there’s an astonishing number of ‘coincidences’ in which the Hebrew name for some ‘entity’ in the Bible relates directly to that entity’s scientifically established physical property,”
    +
    Shore’s book Coincidences in the Bible and in Biblical Hebrew offers dozens of incidents in which the Hebrew words in the Bible offer hidden information about the objects or people they represent, information which, in many cases, couldn’t have been known or measured until modern times.
  • Not making a runner (christadelphians.wordpress.com)
    We should remember that the Father of Jesus is the  Elohim Hashem Yah, The Only One God and there is no other God of gods, only the ever existing Jehovah created. Jehovah was the “Yah” (“Ja”) or the “Yes ” (“Ja”), the Being; without Him no life was or is possible. Yahweh and His Spirit, His Thinking are one and the same not separate. The one placed by the Spirit in the womb of the virgin Mary is the “Yah shua” the Jeshua who was given this set apart spirit and was guided by “Yah”, the being of and from God. In all his ways Jesus took the guidance of God His Spirit in him up and was completely observant to Him. We also should try to listen to this Holy Spirit and follow His guidance.
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Another way looking at a language #6 Set apart

Posted on November 22, 2011. Filed under: Bible Study and Bible Reading, Christendom and Christianity, Ecclesia | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Another way looking at a language

Ancient Hebrew inscriptions - Jewish Encyclopedia

"I am YHWH (YAHUWAH) your Almighty Loving El YA..Have no foreign gods before your face!" Shemoth / Ex 20:2-3

18. The Church

The second biggest teaching in Scripture is that our Creator and Saviour are building a “Set Apart Nation” (“church” never occurs in Scripture!) never heard of in modern Christianity before, called “YAsarel” (Almighty YAH Reigns)! It may be a chock to some not to find anywhere that there shall be build for God a “Roman Holy Catholic Church”.

Church is the word used in most English versions as a rendering of the Greek “ekklesia.” The Greek word means “a calling out,” “a meeting,” or “a gathering.” Ekklesia is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew qahal, which means an assembly or a congregation.

The origin of the word “church” is kuriakon or kyriakon in Greek. The meaning is a building (the house of Kurios, or Lord). In ancient times there were the houses to pray to Baal. The temples of the Lord (not our God, but Baal) were known as House of Kurios or the church, and therefore we should try to avoid the use of that word.

File:Circe Offering the Cup to Odysseus.jpg

Circe Offering the Cup to Odysseus. Oldham Art Gallery, Oldham, U.K. 1891

Dictionaries give the origin of “church” as the Anglo-Saxon root, circe. Circe was the goddess-daughter of Helios, the sun-deity. The word circe is related to “circus,” “circle,” “circuit,” and “circulate.”

Circe ( /ˈsɜrs/; Greek Κίρκη Kírkē “falcon”) the ‘loveliest of all immortals,’ according to Homer‘s Odyssey, was originally a Greek goddess whose name was written and pronounced as Kirke and was the daughter of Helios, the god of the sun, and Perse, an Oceanid, and the sister of Aeetes, the keeper of the Golden Fleece, Perses, and Pasiphaë, the Wife of King Minos and mother of the Minotaur. The word “church” is known in Scotland as kirk, in Germany as Kirche, and in Belgium and Holland (the Netherlands) as kerk and as such indicating to the Germanic godess Kerke or Kirke.

The unity for the church is the unity of the believers who can come together to meet in ecclesiae. Their “church” should be the ecclesia of the community of believers in the Most High Elohim Hashem Jehovah YHWH and in His Son Jeshua, known to most as Jesus, the Messiah or Maschiach/Mashiyach.

19. Original-language Scriptures

There are 13,000 “Original-language Scriptures” in AbraUW (Paleo-Hebrew), IbraUW (Aramaic-Hebrew), Syriac, Coptic and Greek which are 50-75% trustworthy and basically agree. Some Aramaic words are still in use by many churches. We are all familiar with the words “Alleluia”, “Amen”, “Abba”, “Hosanna” and “Sabaoth” which are still in common usage in the western liturgy. Sometime in the last two centuries BCE the Samaritan alphabet began to diverge from the Jewish one. Unlike the Jews, the Samaritans have continued to use this script for writing both Hebrew and Aramaic texts until the present day. A comparison of the earliest Samaritan inscriptions and the medieval and modern Samaritan manuscripts clearly indicates that the Samaritan scriptis a static script which was used mainly as a book hand.

A page from Leviticus, in the Samaritan bible

The Paleo-Hebrew script has been recently revived for specific use in several Sacred Name Bibles: including Zikarown Say’fer, The Besorah and the Halleluyah Scriptures. These translations use it for writing the Tetragrammaton and other divine names, incorporating these name written in this script in the midst of the English text.

The Aramaic English New Testament (AENT) is considered by some the most definitive Aramaic to English translation that has come forth in nearly 2,000 years, while other see also other renewed translations like The Word of YAH -The Kings Covenant also translated from the Original Scriptures. We shall use this year the 4rth Edition of the AENT which has as the 3rd edition of 2010 the Aramaic text in Hebrew letters with modern vowel pointing so making it easier to follow. It comes directly from Aramaic…

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Continues

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Please do find more:

The only Chair of both Hebrew and Aramaic world-wide is at Leiden University’s Department of Hebrew and Aramaic. Bachelor in Hebrew and Aramaic Studies, Middle Eastern Studies (with Hebrew) or a related study (see http://www.mastersinleiden.nl). + MA in Hebrew and Aramaic Languages and Culture > Hebrew and Aramaic Languages and Cultures

In the Aramaic Languages and Cultures specialisation, you will explore various Aramaic languages and literatures, including Syriac, Targumic Aramaic and Imperial Aramaic. You have the possibility to study various Aramaic languages, both individually and against the background of their 3000-year history.
+ a.o.: The historical grammar of Hebrew and the development of the Tiberian tradition, which also lies at the heart of Modern Hebrew

With effect from September 2012, this programme will be offered as a specialisation within the Classics and Ancient Civilisations programme.

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Restored Name King James Bible on line

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You can find the inspirational articles for this series:

Accuracy, Word-for-Word Translation Preferred by most Bible Readers

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Related articles:

Idol Worship (Jewish Encyclopedia)
All idolatrous cults are condemned by the Biblical insistence on worship of Yhwh only. The Decalogue begins with the command to reverence the one true God and to recognize no other deities. On this theme the Pentateuch dilates from every point of view, and the efforts of the Prophets were chiefly directed against idolatry and against the immorality connected with it. To recognize the true God meant also to act according to His will, and consequently to live a moral life. The thunderings of the Prophets against idolatry show, however, that the cults of other deities were deeply rooted in the heart of the Israelitish people, and they do not appear to have been thoroughly suppressed until after the return from the Babylonian exile. There is, therefore, no doubt that Jewish monotheism was preceded by a period of idolatry; the only problem is that which concerns the nature of the cults (comp. the articles Adrammelech; Anammelech; Asherah; Ass-Worship; Astarte Worship Among the Hebrews; Atargatis; ba-al-and-ba-al-worship” href=”http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2236-ba-al-and-ba-al-worship” target=”_blank”>Ba’al and Ba’al-Worship; Baal-peor; Baal-zebub; Baal-zephon; Bamah; Calf, Golden; Calf-Worship; Chemosh; Dagon; High Place; Moloch; Star-Worship; Stone and Stone-Worship; Tammuz; Teraphim; and Witchcraft).

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Another way looking at a language #5 Aramic, Hebrew and Greek

Posted on November 20, 2011. Filed under: Bible Study and Bible Reading, Christendom and Christianity, Christendom en Christenheid, Jehovah יהוה YHWH JHVH God Elohim Yahweh Jahweh, Jesus Christ Jeshua the Messiah Jahushua, Naam van God | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Another way looking at a language

Ancient Hebrew inscriptions - Jewish Encyclopedia

13. Aramaic

Aramaic is to believed to be originated in what is modern-day Syria. Between 1000 and 600 BCE it became extremely widespread, spoken from the Mediterranean coast to the borders of India. Its script, derived from Phoenician and first attested during the 9th century BCE, also became extremely popular and was adopted by many people, both with or without any previous writing system. Despite Hellenistic influences, especially in the cities, that followed the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Aramaic remained the vernacular of the conquered peoples in the Holy Land, Syria, Mesopotamia and the adjacent countries. It ceded only to Arabic in the ninth century A.D., two full centuries after the Islamic conquests of Damascus in 633, and Jerusalem in 635. Aramaic has never been totally supplanted by Arabic. Aramaic had been adopted by the deported Israelites of Transjordan, exiled from Bashan and Gilead in 732 B.C. by Tiglath-Pileser III, the tribes of the Northern Kingdom by Sargon II who took Samaria in 721, and the two tribes of the Southern Kingdom of Judah who were taken into captivity to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar in 587. Hence, the Jews who returned from the Babylonian Captivity brought Aramaic back with them to the Holy Land, and this continued to be their native tongue throughout the lifetime of Eshoo Mshikha.

Aramaic was destined to become Israel’s vernacular tongue; but before this could come about it was necessary that the national independence should be destroyed and the people removed from their own home. These events prepared the way for that great change by which the Jewish nation parted with its national tongue and replaced it, in some districts entirely by Aramaic, in others by the adoption of Aramaized-Hebrew forms.

The oldest literary monument of the Aramaization of Israel would be the Tarcum, the Aramaic version of the Scriptures, were it not that this received its final revision in a somewhat later age. The Targum, as an institution, reaches back to the earliest centuries of the Second Temple. Ezra may not have been, as tradition alleges, the inaugurator of the Targum; but it could not have been much after his day that the necessity made itself felt for the supplementing of the public reading of the Hebrew text of Scripture in the synagogue by a translation of it into the Aramaic vernacular. The tannaitic Halakah speaks of the Targum as an institution closely connected with the public Bible-reading, and one of long-established standing. But, just as the translation of the Scripture lesson for the benefit of the assembled people in the synagogue had to be in Aramaic, so all addresses and homilies hinging upon the Scripture had to be in the same language. Thus Jesus and his nearest disciples spoke Aramaic and taught in it (see Dalman, “Die Worte Jesu”). (Jewish Encyclopedia)

When the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in those remains of the library of a Jewish sect from around the turn of the Era, many compositions in Aramaic also provided the best evidence for Palestinian Aramaic of the sort used by Jesus and his disciples. They preached the Gospel and the scribes recorded the Scriptures. The New Testamenthas been preserved in this sacred, scribal language since the Apostolic Age. The whole Bible was originated in this language and therefore it is best to look also at these sources because they lay at the base.

11th century Hebrew Bible with targum, perhaps...

MS in Hebrew and Aramaic on vellum, Iraq, first half of 11th c., 8 ff., 39x33 cm, 2 columns, (25x25 cm), 23 lines in a large Hebrew square book script, by a scribe perhaps originating from the Maghreb (North Africa probably Tunisia). - Image via Wikipedia

Vast compilations in Aramaic (in Western and Eastern Aramaic dialects) could be found in synagogues and where used in the Judaic academies by the rabbis. Jewish law was transmitted, commented, and debated in the Jewish academies by the rabbis and their disciples. The records of their deliberations constitute the two Talmuds: that of the land of Israel and the much larger Babylonian Talmud.

The Old Aramaic Jesus used is considered dead because it ceased to be used as a literary language in the 13th Century. The old form exists only as a liturgical language but there are still people who speak more modern forms of it. The Peshitta Text of the Holy Scriptures is in the dialect of northwest Mesopotamia as it evolved and was highly perfected in Orhai, once a city-kingdom, later called Edessa by the Greeks, and now called Urfa in Turkey. The large colony of Orhai Jews, and the Jewish colonies in Assyria in the kingdom of Adiabene whose royal house had converted to Judaism, possessed most of the Bible in this dialect, the Peshitta Tenakh.

Modern Aramaic, in its various dialects, is spoken in modern-day Iraq, Iran, Syria, Israel, Lebanon, and the various Western countries to which the native speakers have emigrated, including Russia, Europe, Australia and the United States.

14. Greek

Greek was only spoken by a few in and around Jerusalem at the time of Jesus so it was more important to get the Words from God and the teachings from Christ Jesus been spread in a language most people understood in the by necessity a multi-lingual land. Names of persons, clearly of Aramaic origin, composed of the word bar which means son were transcribed into the later Greek writings giving names as Bariona, Barabba. In both Syriac and Hebrew the spellings between Abiud and Abiur are so close that during translation into Greek the second name could have been dropped mistakenly.

In addition to the forms of the words borrowed from the Greek, it is also important to determine their meanings; for some of these borrowed terms acquired in the mouth of the Jews a deeper religious and moral sense; e.g., γεωμετρία, a certain norm for the interpretation of Scripture (but compare GemaṬria); βῆλον, Latin velum, “heaven”; σχολαστικός, “teacher of the Law”; στρατμγός, “soldier” in general; σύβολον, “covenant” and “wedding present”; τόμος, “book of the Law.” The Jewish usage is sometimes supported by the Septuagint and by the New Testament; e.g., κατήγωρ, “Satan”; πάνδοκος, “whore”; βλασφημία, “blasphemy.” These semasiological differences justify one in speaking of a rabbinic Greek. (Jewish Encyclopedia)

Some treat “split words” as a distinctive subsection of mistranslations. Sometimes it appears that a word in Aramaic with two (or more) distinct and different meanings appears to have been interpreted in the wrong sense, or even translated both ways in different documents.

Aramean funeral stele Louvre AO3026

A sheolstone in Aramaic. Basalt funeral stele bearing an Aramaic inscription, ca. 7th century BC. Found in Neirab or Tell Afis (Syria).

Capharnaum translated, although with some difficulty, from the form Kafar Nahum, the Village of Nahum, or also the name Aceldama, as found in the Book of Acts 1:19, which unites two words Haquel dema, which is “Camp of Blood.” We also find the names of the women transferred: Marta (Luke 10:38), and Tabita/Tabitha (Acts 9:36) which mean respectively: Madame (or Woman), and Gazelle. (These were well-known and frequently used names in the times of Jesus, taken from Aramaic.) The name of Peter — Cefa — corresponds to the Aramaic form of Kefa which means Rock. The name Golgata (Matthew 27:33), and Gabbata (John 19:13) recalling the accounts of the Passion, are derived from two words with the sense of “(place of) the skull” and “the elevated place.” Some names indicating situations or actions where later in their translation understood as certain places sometimes away from this earth, as e.g. sheol or hell which was a place where the death were burned and is now considered by many Christians as a place of torment by fire.

Other words of interest in Greek translations from Aramaic origin are: Effeta or Effata (to open), Talita Qum (Arise little child), Abba (אבא), (Papa/Father). Also the Aramaic last words of Jesus dying at the stake “Eloi Eloi lema sabactani” were in fact the beginning of Psalm 22, spoken by Jesus in Aramaic, and faithfully written down by the Evangelists in Greek. It is possible that the Evangelists wished to preserve and hand down through their writings some words certainly spoken by Jesus, words which the Early Christians (since they spoke Aramaic) faithfully remembered.

We should be alert when somebody or something is jumping the shark and be on the lookout for those who like to make from the Bible a television show or an entertainment form. 63 percent, from the questioned people for the survey, believe the language should be simple for anyone to understand while 14 percent say the language should be meant more for people who have a lot of experience with the Bible. 40 percent prefer more formal language while 26 percent say should be more informal. 22 percent want language more for casual reading while 44 percent say it should be designed more for in-depth study.

Having a new translation is always some tricky thing because than words have to be chosen to be understood according what they mean. Therefore translators try to find the most accurate form though sometimes there does not exist a singular word for the term. the translators are also confronted with more than one neologism ( /nˈɒləɪzəm/; from the Greek νέο-, néo-, “new”, and λόγος, lógos, “speech”, “utterance”) and should be wondering either to use that new word or newly coined term, or phrase, that may sometimes still be in the process of entering common use, but has not yet been accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. For such up-to-date hype translations like the Bikers Bible, Hikers Bible or Prisoners bible we always do have to be very careful, and we even would advice not to use them.

As translators try to cross the globe and two millennia, fully accomplishing word-for-word translations that are easy to understand, is not always possible. It is also a pity that within the years several words were taken into one word so that slight differences disappeared. From many bible translations it is not clear any more if there is spoken of an ordinary pupil or a special (chosen) pupil, a direct pupil of Jesus, a pupil (disciple) Jesus and of other pupils, a send messenger or an ordinary apostle (MalakiYA (Messenger of YA, sn- Apostle), a set apart (kadosh), a sent one (Shlichim) or one of the seventies. For this it is very interesting to go back to the Hebrew and Aramaic because there we can find the different words which in itself give a clear indication about whom it is.

15. Adonai, Lord

The meaning of an entire verse can easily be altered by a translation, for example; the Greek “Kurios” also at times spelled kyrios or kuros, Greek κύριος is often rendered as the Latin Dominus or “Lord“, however there is both “LORD” (the Father) and “Lord” (the Son), which the translator must choose and Kurios. The Kurios would be either the father, or if he was dead, brothers an uncle or relative would be the Kurios. However the God the Father (YahuwhahYHWHJehovah) often substituted with Adonai (my Lord) and the Son of God (Yahushua/ YehsuaJeshua) are clearly distinguished in Aramaic, there is no confusion about the speaker or who is being addressed. The Kurios or Curios was he to whom a person or thing belongs, about which he has power of deciding. As a title of honour expressive of respect and reverence it was also given to people who were above somebody else, or the title used by servants to greet their master.

You should have a look in the preface of your “church bibles” and see if they even admit to substituting the Hebrew (from right to left) “hwhy” or “YHWH” (from left to right) YAHUWAH‘s Name with “the LORD” or “God”. Now read what happens to those who so arrogantly change His Word in Revelation 22:18-19. “I warn everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds anything to them, God will add to him the plagues described in this book. And if anyone takes words away from this book of prophecy, God will take away from him his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book.” (Revelation 22:18-19 NIV) We being part of every man that can hear the words of the prophecy of the book of John his revelations and of all the other Books brought together in what we call the Book of books, the Bible. We should take the warning for, adding to these things or for taking away from the words of the book of this prophecy serious. We would not want to see God adding to him the plagues that are written in this book, or having God taken away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.

“AHleleuYAH” means “Praise be to YAH.” See how “Israel” could never be “El YAH’s chosen people” because the blaspheme His Sacred Eternal Name daily by hiding it!

"I am YHWH (YAHUWAH) your Almighty Loving El YA..Have no foreign gods before your face!" Shemoth / Ex 20:2-3

Even if your pastor does not fear taking away Gods Name or fears speaking out the Most Holy Name, you yourself may not be afraid to use Gods Name regularly. When you got to know the Name of the Most High you should use him. Be careful not intentionally to ‘forget’ him or not using the Name. Don’t lose your eternal life over intentionally doing of this great sin of blasphemy and destruction! So either use Jehovah or Yahweh/Jahwe or both, but use the Name people can take as the Name of the Only One God. In case we are not sure about the pronunciation of Yahuwah or Jehovah (the three syllables) it is always better to use the two syllable name, which may come from the expression that Jehovah may have everything “Ya Have”, using a shortened version of YHWH’s full Name, like Yah in HalleuYah e.g.. So if you do not like to use the full Name perhaps you still can like to use one of the shortened ones “YaHave” (Yahweh”) or “Yah” instead none. Some Richards also like to be called Bill, or Rogers do not mind to be called Bob. We can only do hope God would not mind calling Him such or so, because we are not sure how it is pronounced or because in our mother tongue or native language we use such or such sounds. so much of our way of saying a name or pronouncing a name shall depend on the region and custom. But we do have to be careful not holding strong to an institution or usage because of tradition. As soon as we know better we should adapt to the new found truth or new insight. All our life we shall have to learn and sometimes we do have to change practice. Though people are often in a rut, believers should try not to get set in one’s way but to be open for adaption to the teachings from the Word of God, the Bible, and should overcome habits and compete for the Truth. We should strive not to thingummy or keep to a “whatchacallit”. For the One who Created everything is not a “what’s-his-name”. He has given His Name for His People to use it, therefore we should use it and prefer to put the title of the heathen name “Lord” (Baal) aside.

YHWH

-YAHUWAH (the 7 English letters are also representative of eternal meanings). We may not “vanatize” YAHUWAH’Holy Name with the blasphemous “cover over” of the word “LORD”, “God”, “Lord God!”

16. God His son

So also for the son of God we should try to use his proper name. We should go back returning to “believing upon His Name” (John-YAHUWcanon 1:12), that is YAHUW-husha, which means “YAHUW, He who will save”! and not referring to Zeus by using “Hail Zeus” or Iesou, in English Jesus or in Dutch Jesus and/or Jezus. Mashiyach or in Hebrew Mashiach and in Greek Christos is rendered in the King James as “Anointed” in Psalms 2:2, and as “Messias” in Daniel 9:25-26. It is the Sacred Name for the Son of YHVH or YHWH. Messiah or Mashiyach and Chaciyd which is used in Psalms 16:10 or only titles and not names for the Son of God. The word Christos was far more acceptable to the pagans who were worshiping Chreston and Chrestos. According to The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, the word Christos was easily confused with the common Greek proper name Chrestos, meaning “good.” According to a French theological dictionary, it is absolutely beyond doubt that Christus and Chrestus, and Christiani and Chrestiani were used indifferently by the profane and Christian authors of the first two centuries A.D. The word Christianos is a Latinism, being contributed neither by the Jews nor by the Christians themselves. The word was introduced from one of three origins: the Roman police, the Roman populace, or an unspecified pagan origin. Its infrequent use in the New Testament suggests a pagan origin.

According to Realencyclopaedie, the inscription Chrestos is to be seen on a Mithras relief in the Vatican. According to Christianity and Mythology, Osiris, the sun-deity of Egypt, was reverenced as Chrestos. In the Synagogue of the Marcionites on Mount Hermon, built in the third century A.D., the Messiah’s title is spelled Chrestos. According to Tertullian and Lactantius, the common people usually called Christ Chrestos.

17. Lord

In older versions of the King James Version of the Old Testament we still can find the name Jehovah, but in later versions more and more the Name became exchanged with three different Hebrew words as lord; however, it does so with a careful use of upper case letters to let the reader know which word is in the original texts. When the King James Version translates the Hebrew word for Jehovah as lord, it uses LORD in all capitals. When the King James Version translates the a special Hebrew word for supreme lord, adownai, as lord, it uses Lord with only the “L” in the upper case. Lastly, when the King James Versions translation of the general Hebrew word for lord, adown, as lord, it does so without any use a capital letter at all. A few years ago several translations just placed “lord” so that nobody could get the difference. Aware of the fault of letting the Name of God out of the Bible a few years ago we got the Restored Name King James Bible; Proper Name Version of the King James Bible and Sacred Name King James Version where again we could find the Name of God on most places.
When the decision was made to undertake the task of editing the King James Version, the fact that it was not a unique work was taken into account. The main sources that were used for editing the most recent version were: The Holy Name Bible, by the Scripture Research Association; The Scriptures, by the Institute for Scripture Research; The ExeGesis, by Herb Jahn; and the New Englishman’s Hebrew Concordance, by George V. Wigram.

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Please do find more:

The only Chair of both Hebrew and Aramaic world-wide is at Leiden University’s Department of Hebrew and Aramaic. Bachelor in Hebrew and Aramaic Studies, Middle Eastern Studies (with Hebrew) or a related study (see http://www.mastersinleiden.nl). + MA in Hebrew and Aramaic Languages and Culture > Hebrew and Aramaic Languages and Cultures

In the Aramaic Languages and Cultures specialisation, you will explore various Aramaic languages and literatures, including Syriac, Targumic Aramaic and Imperial Aramaic. You have the possibility to study various Aramaic languages, both individually and against the background of their 3000-year history.
+ a.o.: The historical grammar of Hebrew and the development of the Tiberian tradition, which also lies at the heart of Modern Hebrew

With effect from September 2012, this programme will be offered as a specialisation within the Classics and Ancient Civilisations programme.

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Previous: Another way looking at a language 4 Ancient times

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Restored Name King James Bible on line

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You can find the inspirational articles:

Accuracy, Word-for-Word Translation Preferred by most Bible Readers

You Say Tomato

Don’t Quote Me—But I Think Jesus Is Pissed!

Disney, I Can See the Cracks

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Related articles:

Idol Worship (Jewish Encyclopedia)
All idolatrous cults are condemned by the Biblical insistence on worship of Yhwh only. The Decalogue begins with the command to reverence the one true God and to recognize no other deities. On this theme the Pentateuch dilates from every point of view, and the efforts of the Prophets were chiefly directed against idolatry and against the immorality connected with it. To recognize the true God meant also to act according to His will, and consequently to live a moral life. The thunderings of the Prophets against idolatry show, however, that the cults of other deities were deeply rooted in the heart of the Israelitish people, and they do not appear to have been thoroughly suppressed until after the return from the Babylonian exile. There is, therefore, no doubt that Jewish monotheism was preceded by a period of idolatry; the only problem is that which concerns the nature of the cults (comp. the articles Adrammelech; Anammelech; Asherah; Ass-Worship; Astarte Worship Among the Hebrews; Atargatis; ba-al-and-ba-al-worship” href=”http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2236-ba-al-and-ba-al-worship” target=”_blank”>Ba’al and Ba’al-Worship; Baal-peor; Baal-zebub; Baal-zephon; Bamah; Calf, Golden; Calf-Worship; Chemosh; Dagon; High Place; Moloch; Star-Worship; Stone and Stone-Worship; Tammuz; Teraphim; and Witchcraft).

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Another way looking at a language #4 Ancient times

Posted on November 18, 2011. Filed under: Bible Study and Bible Reading, Jesus Christ Jeshua the Messiah Jahushua | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Another way looking at a language

11. Misreading in early times

Already in early centuries of our current time we got some misreadings in the most ancient Greek manuscripts (Second and Third Centuries of the Common Era) could only have happened by misunderstanding a Peshitta-exclusive reading.

How careful translators and readers of translations have to be can be seen in, for illustration purposes, Matthew 26:6-7, where the Greek NT states that Jeshua or Jesus was dining in the house of a man called “Simon the Leper.” In the narrative a servant girl brings Jeshua an alabaster jar of expensive perfume to anoint him. The impossibility of this reading is evident when one understands that in Jeshua’s day, lepers could not own property, or jars of perfume, or have servant girls, let alone entertain Jewish guests in the near vicinity of Jerusalem (Leviticus 13:45-50).

Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by k...

Bilingual (Greek and Aramaic) inscriptions by king Ashoka at Kandahar (Shar-i-kuna). (3rd century BCE). Preserved at Kabul Museum. Today disappeared. Two-dimensional inscription. - Image via Wikipedia

In response to the facts, some Greek NT advocates suggest that Simon “used to be a leper” and maybe he was celebrating his healing from Jeshua in much the same way that the above mentioned Elazar/ Eliezar or did in John’s or Yochanan’s Gospel. However, there are at least three huge problems with this kind of posturing. First and foremost, Matthew doesn’t record this and John does, so is it fair to overthrow one Gospel writer by another, as if one was somehow less careful in his information? In fact, when theologians venture outside the plain reading of the text (using a completely separate scenario disconnected from internal evidence), it can’t be considered as an honest, scholarly contribution.

The second problem (and a very acute one) is that Torah (Hebrew, ; Aramaic, ; Greek, Νόμος) clearly instructs that lepers must not be referred to as lepers after they are healed (Leviticus 13:1-44). Third and finally, if Simon let people refer to him as “the Leper” (against Torah) it would also greatly inhibit his ability to do business in Israel and he would be well within his legal rights to sue for damages.

Thankfully, Aramaic provides the obvious solution within the text itself. Since Hebrew and Aramaic have no vowels, two words spelled the same, but pronounced differently can have two totally different meanings. In this case, the word in question is spelled gimel-resh-beyt-aleph (GRBA). Pronounced as “gar-bah” the word is “leper” whereas with “gar-ah-bah” (same letters) means jar maker”! Furthermore, since these two words are also pronounced differently, the mistake would most likely happen when copying from an ancient written document that does not offer modern vowel pointing.

12. Ancient codices and modern translation

There are hundreds of examples that attest to Peshitta (The oldest Syriac translation of both the Old and New Testaments) pre-dating the Greek texts, putting it within solid striking distance of the very original writings of the Shlichim. It is this level of accuracy, as expressed both in ancient codices and the most up-to-date modem scholarship being represented in the translations we are going to use this coming year.

Inscription of Abraham son of Sarah from Mtskheta, Georgia. 4th-6th cc CE.

A schematic drawing of the Judeo-Aramaic inscription on a gold plaque found in Mtskheta, Georgia in 1992. It is apparently an amulet, mentioning its owner Abraham, son of Sarah. Date from 4th century until 6th century

This time we do look at two different translations at once, having the Aramaic on one side of the page and English or Dutch on a facing page. Also because for one translation does only exist with the full New Testament and only a few parts in the Old Testament (The Torah). This is the Aramaic English New Testament translated also into an Aramaic-English-Dutch New Testament in the most recent edition of 2011 (AENT and the AEDNT). For Dutch we also shall compare it to ‘De Heilige Boeken van het Nieuwe Testament -De Peshitta”, the Messianic Peshitta translation by E. Nierop (2009, 2010) (NL)

The other translation shall be based on the Hebrew and Aramaic Scriptures and is also based on the same basic effort as the version we are going to use the year after this one. So we shall be able to compare the evolution of two different Bible Translations based on the work of the South African Chris Koster, namely this academic year “The Scriptures” (“De Geschriften”) and afterwards “The HalleluYah Scriptures”.

We choose those Bible Translations especially because they go back to the language of the man who we want to follow as our example. Jeshua, to most Christians known as Jesus spoke Galilean dialect of the Ancient Aramaic language at home and with friends. His mother-tongue belongs to the Semitic languages of the Northern Central or North-western group or to the Afro-asiatic language phylum. It was the international trade language of the ancient Middle East and therefore also understood by many who originally spoke another tongue. Speaking Aramaic Jesus easily could be understood by those who spoke another dialect or other language. It is particularly closely related to Hebrew, and was written in a variety of alphabetic scripts. (What is usually called “Hebrew” script is actually an Aramaic script.) Aramaic displaced Hebrew for many purposes among the Jews, a fact reflected in the Bible, where portions of Ezra and Daniel are in Aramaic. Some of the best known stories in biblical literature, including that of Belshazzar’s feast with the famous “handwriting on the wall” are in Aramaic. It remained a dominant language for Jewish worship, scholarship, and everyday life for centuries in both the land of Israel and in the Diaspora, especially in Babylon.

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Previous: Another way looking at a language #3 Abraham

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Related:

  1. Why believing the Bible
  2. Hebrew, Aramaic and Bibletranslation
  3. Spelling Yahshuah (יהשע) vs Hebrew using Yehoshuah (יהושע)
  4. Some Restored Name Versions
  5. HalleluYah Scriptures
  6. HalleluYah Scriptures Corrections
  7. Lord or Yahuwah, Yeshua or Yahushua

In Dutch:

  • Evidence from History and the Gospels that Jesus Spoke Greek (A)- “Ελήλυθεν η ώρα ίνα δοξασθή ο υιός του ανθρώπου” (spacezilotes.wordpress.com)
    The evidence is as yet inconclusive as to what language Jesus would have normally spoken to the Jewish crowds or to his disciples. However, for nearly the last century, “it has become practically a generally accepted tradition that the mother tongue of Jesus, the language he knew best and therefore usually spoke, was Aramaic.”1 This is mainly due to the conclusions of Dalman,2 “who stated that, though Jesus may have known Hebrew, and probably spoke Greek, he certainly taught in Aramaic.”3 Some New Testament scholars have even gone as far as to say that “Jesus only spoke in Aramaic.”4
  • Could Computer Analysis Help Date the Gospels? (blogs.forbes.com)
    Back in 1998 Maurice Casey, a New Testament scholar at University of Nottingham, wrote a book called Aramaic Sources of Mark’s Gospel. Casey had studied the Dead Sea Scrolls extensively, and drew upon them to make the case that most of Mark was written originally in Aramaic.

    How? Weren’t the Gospels, as we have them, written in Greek by Greek Christians many decades after the events they purported to describe?
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    Throughout the first century of critical scholarship, the use of Aramaic was beset with such severe problems that most scholars might well feel that it was a specialized area of dubious value….The use of Aramaic of different times and places, the use of only one word at a time, the elevation of supposed puns to the level of  a major tool when they could not be properly verified, all this was enough to keep Aramaic as a specialized area.

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Another way looking at a language #1 New Year, Books and Words

Posted on November 13, 2011. Filed under: Bible Study and Bible Reading, Holy Scriptures | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , |

Another way looking at a language

1. New Academic Year = New books

Every new academic year we go over to use another Bible translation in our ecclesia, to keep the minds going and to give opportunities to hear another voice or see another angle of lightning. It is a way of broadening the horizon.

Ancient Hebrew inscriptions - Jewish Encyclopedia

Serious Bible Students should always try to find out how something is written in a certain language and what is meant by it. They should like, it seems, most American Bible readers prefer, look for word-for-word translations of the original Greek and Hebrew. Paraphrased bibles can be interesting for youngsters or when people start by getting to know the Word of God. The literal or word-for-word translations should by all means gain the first position on the table when no original language is known. That is for most of us a problem that we do not know Hebrew, Aramaic and Ancient Greek. Though to get into depth reading of the Old Scriptures and Holy Scriptures we could use some knowledge of the old languages.
For the Biblical Canon, the Greek word κανών, meaning primarily a straight rod, and derivatively a norm or law, was first applied by the church fathers (not earlier than 360) to the collection of Holy Scriptures, and primarily to those of the so-called Old Testament (Credner, “Zur Gesch. des Canons,” pp. 58-68). But although the older Jewish literature has no such designation for the Biblical books, and it is doubtful whether the word was ever included in the rabbinical vocabulary, it is quite certain that the idea expressed by the designation “canonical writings” (γραΦαὶ κανονικαί), both as including and as excluding certain books, is of Jewish origin. The designation “Apocrypha” affords a parallel instance: the word is Greek; the conception is Jewish (compare the words “Genuzim,” “Genizah”). (Jewish Encyclopedia)

When not enough knowledge of the ancient or semitic languages is available we should use the most accurate literal translation and make use of the Strong’s number indications with a further comparison of stricter and more free translations and value accuracy over readability.

Sanskrit Bible

2. Translation Survey

When in a recent survey by Life Way Research study of a total of 2,000 Bible readers the volunteers where asked whether they prefer “word-for-word translations, where the original words are translated as exactly as possible” or “thought-for-thought translations, where the translators attempt to reproduce the intent of the original thought rather than translating the exact words,” 61 percent chose word-for-word. But strangely enough at the same time 63 percent believe it should be simple for anyone to understand while 14 percent say the language should be meant more for people who have a lot of experience with the Bible. But the Bible should be able to reach people who do not read much or do not have any knowledge of Bible reading.

3. Formal language

When we do find 40 percent preferring more formal language while 26 percent say that the language should be more informal we can wonder if it is not possible to let them understand that we have to take the language of the Bible as it was written in that time, taking in consideration that we do have to hear and see the phrases as they were spoken and used at that time. Often bible translators want it to place it in the language form which is popular at the time of the publication of the translation.

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